Know thyself and become what you are a eudaimonic approach to psychological well-being pdf
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- Conceptualizing social well-being in activity-based offices
- The FPR Interviews Psychologist Carol Ryff on Well-Being and Aging
- Know Thyself and Become What You Are: A Eudaimonic Approach to Psychological Well-Being
Tuna daksa is a person whose body-parts disability on activator part that involves bones, muscles, and joints, it—as in body structure or functions—can harm and obstruct people from conducting or working as normal people do. Psychological impact suffered by tuna daksa can be identified as feeling anxious, depressed, apathetic, frustrated, and being introvert by pulling themselves from society. In addition, they have negative sight upon their body condition or their self-acceptance.
According to Shepard , self-acceptance is an individual's satisfaction or happiness with oneself, and is thought to be necessary for good mental health. Self-acceptance involves self-understanding, a realistic, albeit subjective, awareness of one's strengths and weaknesses. It results in an individual's feeling about oneself, that they are of "unique worth". In clinical psychology and positive psychology , self-acceptance is considered the prerequisite for change to occur. It can be achieved by stopping criticizing and solving the defects of one's self, and then accepting them to be existing within one's self.
Carol D. Frenkel about well-being in the United States and Japan, and different attitudes towards aging. She also compares Western and Eastern types of intervention to promote well-being. Since , Dr. Ryff and her Wisconsin team have been studying 7, individuals and examining factors that influence health and well-being from middle age through old age. National Study of Americans. A reference list of works cited is included at end of the post.
The model of psychological well-being I developed was based on the integration of theories from developmental, clinical, humanistic, and existential psychology. Six key components of well-being seem to capture what it means to function positively. However, even the ancient Greeks had differing views about what might constitute the ultimate targets in living.
Epicurus, for example, wrote about hedonia, which corresponds to the contemporary interest in happiness, positive affect, and feeling good. Those aspects of well-being also get a lot of attention in current scientific studies. Core dimensions of psychological well-being and their theoretical dimensions. Singer, Fig. CR : Your question points to a growing area of scientific investigation — namely, how does well-being vary across cultural contexts? Another difference between the U. In the U. There are obviously exceptions for those suffering from depression and dealing with major life stressors.
But the typical profile in the U. That is not true in Japan. Both tend to be more moderately reported. That is, there is no cultural prescription for feeling mostly positive emotion and not feeling much negative. If anything, there is socialization to feel both, as strands of a rope that are woven together.
This is traceable to philosophy and religion perspectives that underlie cultural psychology in Japan and Asian cultures more generally. In such a cultural context, it is expected that individuals experience both kinds of affect.
Oodles of websites and popular books exemplify this pursuit of happiness, which is a big part of life in the West. KAF : In another paper on dialectical and non-dialectical emotional styles, you ask whether cultural differences can be observed across different kinds of emotional styles. You found that moderate dialectical emotional types had poor health in the U. How do you explain these findings? CR : The idea of dialectical emotions comes back to how positive and negative affect are put together in the U.
This is true even when we look at more objective health criteria, like stress hormones, or other biological risk factors. When we looked at how positive and negative affect are put together in Japan, it raised interesting questions — what does affect mean for health in Japan and is it different from what we see in U.
In a culture where negative affect is not seen as something that you need to get rid of, or run from, does it imply different links to health outcomes? We have since found that negative affect in the U. This is important because it is not just about subjective experience and how that relates to self-reported health; even for more objective indicators such an inflammatory markers, negative affect is not predictive in Japan.
Originally it was about negative affect. He found, based on EEG-based responses to laboratory stimuli that those prone to negative affect or depression show greater right prefrontal activation patterns.
In contrast, those with more positive dispositional styles, defined in terms of high levels of psychological well-being, showed the opposite pattern, that is, greater left pre-frontal activation in response to laboratory stimuli. Moreover, the strong signal between my measures of well-being and greater relative left prefrontal activation was evident, even after controlling for hedonic reports of well-being positive affect. Such findings underscore the importance of distinguishing between different types of well-being.
It is not the same as hedonic well-being. We hope such assessments might be added eventually, but do not have them as yet. Because Japanese adults are more likely to report some degree of both negative or positive affect, it would be interesting to examine whether the affective neuroscience data observed in U. Please summarize the East-West distinctions.
In Japan, a culture that is respectful of elders via traditions of filial piety, there are many ways in which the language itself and forms of interaction show honor for elders. We found that older people in Japan, unlike their U. This somewhat supported our idea that it may be easier to grow old in Japan than in the U. On the other hand, we found lower scores on purpose in life for older people in both cultures.
The fact that older people in both of these first world countries are living longer is a challenge. Japan, in fact, has the highest proportion of older people of any country in the world at present. That older people are reporting lower scores on purpose in life compared to younger age groups is a concern in both contexts.
Both of our countries face serious challenges in figuring out how to best utilize the talents and capacities of our older populations.
CR : There is some evidence of that with regard to personal growth, but keep in mind that for assessments on whether they feel their life has purpose, meaning, and direction, older persons in both cultures scored lower than middle-age people.
The life of older people in Japan is changing, with fewer extended families living in the same households. Growing numbers of elderly persons in Japan live alone, which was not at all common in previous decades.
Their family patterns are becoming westernized. Please compare them here. The way that well-being tries to do that is to get patients to focus on their experiences of well-being by keeping daily diaries of positive experience. Morita therapy in Japan is remarkably different. It is designed to treat distressed or maladjusted people, but the focus is not on fixing emotions.
Emotions come and go and people do not control them. What you can fix is what you do. So the therapy tries to get people to shift into thinking not so much about how they feel, but what they are doing.
The idea is to focus on daily behaviors, over which one can exercise control. That path is intended to help people function better while at the same time learn not to be done in by feeling bad about some things some of the time. The message there is that bad feelings happen.
Naikan therapy goes to the heart of this interdependent way of being in Japan because the therapy is built around your relationships with key others. Three questions are the focus: how you feel about your mother, which from psychodynamic perspectives is not new idea. But the question is first, what have you received from your mother?
Second, what have you given to your mother? And third, what trouble, inconvenience, deceit, pettiness, have you caused your mother? You are never given the option to answer the question, how has your mother caused problems for you, which constitutes the focus of vast amounts of psychotherapy in the West.
KAF : I was so fascinated by this because it is considered improper, or bad form, to dwell on how you might have been badly treated. That kind of therapy seems unheard of in the West. However, even the core questions of Naikon therapy are not so much about what feelings might have gone on between you and your mother.
Why should lay people be interested in differences in American and Japanese well-being? What does it add up to? Do we have something more to say than that cultures differ? Clearly, they differ in terms of what well-being is, what mental maladjustment is, and how they treat it.
But there is also the question of whether one form of well-being is better than another? Are some cultures doing a better job of answering these questions than others? How to grapple with these issues? We have only begun to look at the evidence, but it appears that different aspects of well-being matter for health in differ ways depending on the cultural context where people reside.
This is asking whether it is beneficial to have knowledge of how well-being is construed in different cultural contexts. Such an insight might be useful for us to know in the West. Similarly, it might be useful for people in Japan to know something about how we function. This might be useful to consider in Japan. Embedded within these reflections is the idea that varieties of well-being around the world each are prone to their own forms of excess and inadequacy.
However, until we look at well-being in multiple contexts, we may be blind to what these forms of excess are. The way to gain this understanding is to look at the experiences of, and ideals about, well-being around the world.
We see ourselves and our own views about what it means to be well by looking in a different cultural mirror. Maybe it needs to be slightly shifted this way or that. Karasawa, M. Cultural perspectives on aging and well-being: A comparison of Japan and the United States. Miyamoto, Y. Cultural differences in the dialectical and non-dialectical emotional styles and their implications for health. Ryff, C. Know thyself and become what you are: A eudaimonic approach to psychological well-being.
Journal of Happiness Studies, 9, 13—
Conceptualizing social well-being in activity-based offices
Metrics details. Maladjustment and emotional distress are extremely prevalent among first-year medical students in college and are associated with numerous negative consequences for medical freshmen, their families and universities. The current research aimed to detect the efficacy of a well-being therapy in promoting adaptation to college life and alleviating emotional distress among medical freshmen. One hundred one participants who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled in a single-blind randomized controlled trial. Psychological well-being, adaptation, anxiety and depression were recorded at pretest, posttest, and at three-month follow-up.
Resilience is a key factor in the well-being of individuals. The present study set out to analyze the role of fluid intelligence, personality traits, and resilience in hedonic and eudaimonic well-being EWB in order to determine the incremental validity of resilience with respect to fluid intelligence and personality traits in Italian high school students. The results showed that resilience added a significant percentage of incremental variance with respect to fluid intelligence and personality traits in relation to life satisfaction, positive affect, life meaning, and authenticity. These results underline the value of resilience in both hedonic and EWB, thus offering new perspectives for research and intervention. Preventive programs focus on reducing risk factors and increasing protective factors that can decrease the probability of negative outcomes Hage et al.
Also examined are ideas about positive human functioning from existential and utilitarian philosophy as well as clinical, developmental, and humanistic psychology. How these perspectives were integrated to create a multidimensional model of psychological well-being [Ryff, C. Life course and socioeconomic correlates of well-being are examined to underscore the point that opportunities for eudaimonic well-being are not equally distributed. Biological correlates cardiovascular, neuroendocrine, immune of psychological well-being are also briefly noted as they suggest possible health benefits associated with living a life rich in purpose and meaning, continued growth, and quality ties to others. We conclude with future challenges in carrying the eudaimonic vision forward. This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution. Rent this article via DeepDyve.
The FPR Interviews Psychologist Carol Ryff on Well-Being and Aging
Carol D. Frenkel about well-being in the United States and Japan, and different attitudes towards aging. She also compares Western and Eastern types of intervention to promote well-being.
Know Thyself and Become What You Are: A Eudaimonic Approach to Psychological Well-Being
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The purpose of this article is to aid conceptualization of social well-being at work by identifying its components in a contemporary office context, so adequate measures can be developed to monitor social well-being and to assess the impact of interventions in the workplace. This study used existing interview data from recent post-occupancy evaluations of two large activity-based flexible offices in the Dutch public sector. Data-driven concept mapping of different employees' statements on social aspects of well-being was used to find communalities in their perceptions.
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Ryff and B. Ryff , B. Also examined are ideas about positive human functioning from existential and utilitarian philosophy as well as clinical, developmental, and humanistic psychology.
KNOW THYSELF AND BECOME WHAT YOU ARE: A EUDAIMONIC APPROACH TO PSYCHOLOGICAL. WELL-BEING. ABSTRACT.