Handbook of research on building information modeling and construction pdf
File Name: handbook of research on building information modeling and construction .zip
- Building information modeling
- Building Information Modeling (BIM) and the Construction Management Body of Knowledge
- Motivation Factors for Adopting Building Information Modeling (BIM) in Iraq
- Building information modeling
Building information modeling
Building information modeling BIM is a process supported by various tools, technologies and contracts involving the generation and management of digital representations of physical and functional characteristics of places. Building information models BIMs are computer files often but not always in proprietary formats and containing proprietary data which can be extracted, exchanged or networked to support decision-making regarding a built asset.
BIM software is used by individuals, businesses and government agencies who plan, design , construct , operate and maintain buildings and diverse physical infrastructures , such as water, refuse, electricity, gas, communication utilities, roads, railways, bridges, ports and tunnels.
The concept of BIM has been in development since the s, but it only became an agreed term in the early s. Development of standards and adoption of BIM has progressed at different speeds in different countries; standards developed in the United Kingdom from onwards have formed the basis of international standard ISO , launched in January The concept of BIM has existed since the s.
However, the terms 'Building Information Model' and 'Building Information Modeling' including the acronym "BIM" did not become popularly used until some 10 years later.
In , Autodesk released a white paper entitled "Building Information Modeling,"  and other software vendors also started to assert their involvement in the field. These applications differ from architectural drafting tools such as AutoCAD by allowing the addition of further information time, cost, manufacturers' details, sustainability, and maintenance information, etc. As Graphisoft had been developing such solutions for longer than its competitors, Laiserin regarded its ArchiCAD application as then "one of the most mature BIM solutions on the market.
As some BIM software developers have created proprietary data structures in their software, data and files created by one vendor's applications may not work in other vendor solutions. To achieve interoperability between applications, neutral, non-proprietary or open standards for sharing BIM data among different software applications have been developed. Poor software interoperability has long been regarded as an obstacle to industry efficiency in general and to BIM adoption in particular.
It was developed by the University of Leeds and the UK's Steel Construction Institute in the late s, with inputs from Georgia Tech , and was approved by the American Institute of Steel Construction as its data exchange format for structural steel in COBie was devised by Bill East of the United States Army Corps of Engineers in ,  and helps capture and record equipment lists, product data sheets, warranties, spare parts lists, and preventive maintenance schedules.
This information is used to support operations, maintenance and asset management once a built asset is in service. In January , ISO published the first two parts of ISO , providing a framework for building information modelling, based on process standards developed in the United Kingdom.
Traditional building design was largely reliant upon two-dimensional technical drawings plans, elevations, sections, etc. Building information modeling extends the three primary spatial dimensions width, height and depth , incorporating information about time so-called 4D BIM ,  cost 5D BIM ,  asset management, sustainability, etc.
BIM therefore covers more than just geometry. It also covers spatial relationships, geospatial information, quantities and properties of building components for example, manufacturers' details , and enables a wide range of collaborative processes relating to the built asset from initial planning through to construction and then throughout its operational life.
BIM authoring tools present a design as combinations of "objects" — vague and undefined, generic or product-specific, solid shapes or void-space oriented like the shape of a room , that carry their geometry, relations, and attributes. BIM applications allow extraction of different views from a building model for drawing production and other uses. These different views are automatically consistent, being based on a single definition of each object instance.
For the professionals involved in a project, BIM enables a virtual information model to be shared by the design team architects , landscape architects , surveyors , civil , structural and building services engineers , etc.
Each professional adds discipline-specific data to the shared model - commonly, a 'federated' model which combines several different disciplines' models into one. Use of BIM goes beyond the planning and design phase of the project, extending throughout the building life cycle.
The supporting processes of building lifecycle management includes cost management , construction management , project management , facility operation and application in green building.
A CDE is used to share data across a project or asset lifecycle, supporting collaboration across a whole project team the meaning overlaps with enterprise content management , ECM, but with a greater focus on BIM issues. Building information models span the whole concept-to-occupation time-span. To ensure efficient management of information processes throughout this span, a BIM manager might be appointed.
The BIM manager is retained by a design build team on the client's behalf from the pre-design phase onwards to develop and to track the object-oriented BIM against predicted and measured performance objectives, supporting multi-disciplinary building information models that drive analysis, schedules, take-off and logistics.
Participants in the building process are constantly challenged to deliver successful projects despite tight budgets, limited manpower, accelerated schedules, and limited or conflicting information. BIM additionally is able to aid in collision detection, identifying the exact location of discrepancies. The BIM concept envisages virtual construction of a facility prior to its actual physical construction, in order to reduce uncertainty, improve safety, work out problems, and simulate and analyze potential impacts.
Waste can be minimised on-site and products delivered on a just-in-time basis rather than being stock-piled on-site. Quantities and shared properties of materials can be extracted easily. Scopes of work can be isolated and defined. Systems, assemblies and sequences can be shown in a relative scale with the entire facility or group of facilities.
BIM also prevents errors by enabling conflict or 'clash detection' whereby the computer model visually highlights to the team where parts of the building e. This can yield benefits to the facility owner or operator.
For example, a building owner may find evidence of a leak in his building. Rather than exploring the physical building, he may turn to the model and see that a water valve is located in the suspect location.
He could also have in the model the specific valve size, manufacturer, part number, and any other information ever researched in the past, pending adequate computing power. Such problems were initially addressed by Leite and Akinci when developing a vulnerability representation of facility contents and threats for supporting the identification of vulnerabilities in building emergencies.
Dynamic information about the building, such as sensor measurements and control signals from the building systems, can also be incorporated within BIM software to support analysis of building operation and maintenance. There have been attempts at creating information models for older, pre-existing facilities. Approaches include referencing key metrics such as the Facility Condition Index FCI , or using 3D laser-scanning surveys and photogrammetry techniques separately or in combination or digitizing traditional building surveying methodologies by using mobile technology to capture accurate measurements and operation-related information about the asset that can be used as the basis for a model.
Trying to model a building constructed in, say , requires numerous assumptions about design standards, building codes, construction methods, materials, etc.
An American National Standard entitled APPA — Total Cost of Ownership for Facilities Asset Management incorporates BIM to factor in a variety of critical requirements and costs over the life-cycle of the building, including but not limited to: replacement of energy, utility, and safety systems; continual maintenance of the building exterior and interior and replacement of materials; updates to design and functionality; and recapitalization costs.
BIM in green building , or "green BIM", is a process that can help architecture, engineering and construction firms to improve sustainability in the built environment.
It can allow architects and engineers to integrate and analyze environmental issues in their design over the life cycle of the asset. China began its exploration on informatisation in The Ministry of Construction announced BIM was as the key application technology of informatisation in "Ten new technologies of construction industry" by Due to its population and economic growth, India has an expanding construction market.
Under the Construction Industry Transformation Plan CITP ,  it is hoped more emphasis on technology adoption across the project life-cycle will induce higher productivity. However, it was not until the late s that the Korean industry paid attention to BIM. Since , the Korean government has been gradually increasing the scope of BIM-mandated projects. Dubai Municipality issued a circular in mandating BIM use for buildings of a certain size, height or type.
The one page circular initiated strong interest in BIM and the market responded in preparation for more guidelines and direction. In the Municipality issued another circular titled 'Regarding the expansion of applying the BIM on buildings and facilities in the emirate of Dubai' which made BIM mandatory on more projects by reducing the minimum size and height requirement for projects requiring BIM.
In Estonia digital construction cluster Digitaalehituse Klaster was formed in to develop BIM solutions for the whole life-cycle of construction. The cluster is equally co-funded by European Structural and Investment Funds through Enterprise Estonia and by the members of the cluster with a total budget of euros for the period In France, a Building transition digital plan - French acronym PTNB - has been created mandated since to and under several ministries.
In December , the German minister for transport Alexander Dobrindt announced a timetable for the introduction of mandatory BIM for German road and rail projects from the end of In November , Ireland's Department for Public Expenditure and Reform launched a strategy to increase use of digital technology in delivery of key public works projects, requiring the use of BIM to be phased in over the next four years.
Through the new D. The decree states among the main goals of public procurement the "rationalization of designing activities and of all connected verification processes, through the progressive adoption of digital methods and electronic instruments such as Building and Infrastructure Information Modelling". In Norway BIM has been used increasingly since The Government Building Authority bases its processes on BIM in open formats to increase process speed and quality, and all large and several small and medium-sized contractors use BIM.
The Russian government has approved a list of the regulations that provide the creation of a legal framework for the use of information modeling of buildings in construction. Although there are neither standards nor legislative requirements to deliver projects in BIM, many architects, structural engineers and contractors, plus a few investors are already applying BIM. A Slovak implementation strategy created by BIMaS and supported by the Chamber of Civil Engineers and Chamber of Architects has yet to be approved by Slovak authorities due to their low interest in such innovation.
Since through the initiative of buildingSmart Switzerland, then , BIM awareness among a broader community of engineers and architects was raised due to the open competition for Basel 's Felix Platter Hospital  where a BIM coordinator was sought. Initially, compliance would require building data to be delivered in a vendor-neutral ' COBie ' format, thus overcoming the limited interoperability of BIM software suites available on the market.
Outside of government, industry adoption of BIM from has been led by the UK BIM Alliance,  an independent, not-for-profit, collaboratively-based organisation formed to champion and enable the implementation of BIM, and to connect and represent organisations, groups and individuals working towards digital transformation of the UK's built environment industry.
The UK BIM Alliance's executive team  directs activities in three core areas: engagement, implementation and operations internal support and secretariat functions. Although the concept of BIM and relevant processes are being explored by contractors, architects and developers alike, the term itself has been questioned and debated  with alternatives including Virtual Building Environment VBE also considered. Unlike some countries such as the UK, the US has not adopted a set of national BIM guidelines, allowing different systems to remain in competition.
The American Institute of Architects has defined BIM as "a model-based technology linked with a database of project information",  and this reflects the general reliance on database technology as the foundation. In the future, structured text documents such as specifications may be able to be searched and linked to regional, national, and international standards.
In addition to its potential clarity and transparency, it may help promote standardization across the industry. For instance, Utiome  suggests that, in conceptualizing a BIM-based knowledge transfer framework from industrialized economies to urban construction projects in developing nations, generic BIM objects can benefit from rich building information within specification parameters in product libraries, and used for efficient, streamlined design and construction.
Similarly, an assessment of the current 'state of the art' by Kori  found that medium and large firms were leading the adoption of BIM in the industry. Smaller firms were less advanced with respect to process and policy adherence. There has been little adoption of BIM in the built environment due to construction industry resistance to changes or new ways of doing things.
The industry is still working with conventional 2D CAD systems in services and structural designs, although production could be in 3D systems. There is virtually no utilisation of 4D and 5D systems. The South African BIM Institute, established in May , aims to enable technical experts to discuss digital construction solutions that can be adopted by professionals working within the construction sector.
Organisations implement company-specific BIM standards and protocols at best there are isolated examples of cross-industry alliances. In February , Infrastructure Australia recommended: "Governments should make the use of Building Information Modelling BIM mandatory for the design of large-scale complex infrastructure projects.
In support of a mandatory rollout, the Australian Government should commission the Australasian Procurement and Construction Council, working with industry, to develop appropriate guidance around the adoption and use of BIM; and common standards and protocols to be applied when using BIM.
In , many projects in the rebuilding of Christchurch were being assembled in detail on a computer using BIM well before workers set foot on the site.
The New Zealand government started a BIM acceleration committee, as part of a productivity partnership with the goal of 20 per cent more efficiency in the construction industry by BIM is a relatively new technology in an industry typically slow to adopt change. Yet many early adopters are confident that BIM will grow to play an even more crucial role in building documentation.
BIM also contains most of the data needed for building performance analysis. Some purposes or uses of BIM may be described as 'dimensions'. However, there is little consensus on definitions beyond 5D, and some organisations dismiss the term; the UK Institution of Structural Engineers , for example, says "cost 5D is not really a 'dimension'.
Building Information Modeling (BIM) and the Construction Management Body of Knowledge
Building information modeling BIM is an integrated and comprehensive system including whatever is related to a construction project and its stages. It represents a unified database for all project data through which project documents are available to all stakeholders. This paper evaluates the factors driving the adoption of BIM in Iraqi construction projects in different ministries and adopts quantitative approach to collect data by using a questionnaire survey specially prepared for this purpose which was distributed to experts in the ministries of the Iraqi construction sector. Returned data were subjected to proper statistical analysis. Results showed that the highest motivation for BIM application is to include it in the educational curricula, raise awareness through courses and workshops and contracting with international experts with experience in BIM field.
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Motivation Factors for Adopting Building Information Modeling (BIM) in Iraq
Structural engineering companies SECs currently have a series of deficiencies that hinder their processes and interactions, decreasing their productivity, lacking collaborative and interconnected processes, not including current work methodologies such as building information modeling BIM. The BIM methodology seeks to integrate processes and professionals involved in engineering tasks by working on platforms with coordinated and intelligent 3D virtual models. BIM has great potential for structural engineering companies SEC and solves their most salient problems. This paper defines a methodology to implement BIM in the SEC, focused on solving the complexities of the design phase, those that make the implementation of BIM in these offices a nontrivial task. Characterized by the optimization of resources, flexibility, and adaptability, the methodology proposed for BIM implementation within SEC clearly and objectively identifies the resources and expectations of the organizations, sets out the requirements necessary to develop the BIM methodology, and provides practical and technical recommendations for planning and monitoring the implementation.
Information Science Reference, United States, pp. View at publisher. Building Information Modeling BIM is a modern approach to the design, documentation, delivery, and life cycle management of buildings through the use of project information databases coupled with object-based parametric modeling. BIM has the potential to revolutionize the Architecture, Engineering and Construction AEC industry in terms of the positive impact it may have on information flows, working relationships between project participants from different disciplines and the resulting benefits it may achieve through improvements to conventional methods. More specifically, the objectives of this chapter are to investigate the adoption of BIM in the Australian AEC industry and factors that contribute towards the uptake or non uptake of BIM.
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Building information modeling
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