Technical and research report writing pdf
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- Sample Papers
- MLA, APA, & CMS: How to Properly Format Your Papers
- How to write a research paper
- Sample Papers
Citation examples. This page lists the details you will need to include when writing citations for various types of source material. The examples given are in a version of Harvard style unless otherwise stated.
Check the referencing style your course prefers , and see Styles of referencing for more information on how you should format your citations. Even if your course prefers Harvard, this is a style rather than a set of rules, so details of punctuation may differ. Always check your course handbook for the exact formatting preferred in your dept for instance, some depts prefer the date in brackets in the brief reference , and if there isn't a preferred format, choose one and use it throughout.
Note that, whatever the type of source, the title of the containing volume i. Whichever you use, be consistent and use the same formatting throughout your citations.
If the source you want to cite is not listed here, see Writing citations for tips on how to cite unusual sources. If you're still not sure, you could ask your Liaison Librarian or a Study Adviser:.
Include information on editions and number of volumes if appropriate. Full: Shriver, D. Inorganic chemistry. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Brief: Shriver and Atkins, Full: Friedman, M. Protein nutritional quality of foods and feeds. New York: Marcel Dekker, 2 vols. Brief: Friedman, Include the page extent of the whole article when writing your full citation, not just the pages you have referred to. Detective fiction and historical narrative.
Greece and Rome. Full: Christie, D. Coutts, N. Rimpilainen, S. Building collaborative communities of enquiry in educational research. Educational Research and Evaluation , 13 3 , Brief: Christie et al. If you access a journal article online e. Note that online-only journal articles may not have page numbers:. Full: Farrell, L.
Challenging assumptions about IT skills in higher education. Journal of Learning Development in Higher Education , 6. Include the page extent of the whole chapter when writing your full citation, not just the pages you have referred to. Full: Laurie, H. Couples, work and money. Berthoud and J. Gershuny eds.
Seven years in the lives of British families, Bristol: Policy Press, pp. Brief: Laurie and Gershuny, If there is no named author, use whoever has responsibility for the webpage e. You may be able to find a date by scrolling to the bottom of the page, but if there is none, use n.
Full: Sherman, C. The invisible web. Brief: Sherman, Full: Biffa. Our environmental policy. Brief: Biffa, Full: Sport for all. Trampolining for the elderly. Brief: Sport for all, n. A cited source is when the author of the text you are reading quotes someone else, and you want to use the quote that they use in your work.
Different depts may have different preferred ways of doing this, so do check any advice you are given or ask your course tutor if you are not sure. Otherwise, this is general guidance. If possible, you should always try to read the original of anything you wish to refer to. Otherwise you are relying on the author who cited the reference to have interpreted it correctly and not taken it out of context.
If you do read the original, you should include a citation to both sources in your bibliography or reference list, and your brief citation should cite both texts:. Full: Bender, A. Food processing and nutrition. London: Academic Press. Full: Chang, I. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society , 29 , Brief: Chang, Also cited in Bender, If you cannot read the original, you should only list the source you have actually read in your bibliography or reference list:. Brief: Chang, cited in Bender, If you are referring to artworks directly rather than to images of them that you have found in books, catalogues or the internet, for instance , you will usually include a full citation for them at the start of your bibliography in a separate list of Primary Sources.
Cedar, M. Mars at night sculpture. Manor Art Gallery, Manchester. In the body of the text you will always refer to the artwork directly, so can build your citation into your sentence and do not need to use a brief in-text citation. Matthew 5: 3. Jones, J. It is important to make it clear that you are referencing an e-book edition rather than a print edition of a book as the page numbers may be different.
However it is usually sufficient to write the citation as you would for the print version, adding [e-book] after the title. With e-journal articles , how you cite will depend on whether the journal is only published online, or if it is a print journal that has been uploaded for electronic access. You can usually tell the difference by looking for page numbers. If each article in the journal has a wide range of page numbers for instance, , it is likely to be a print journal that has been scanned or uploaded for electronic access.
If each article in the journal begins at page 1, or has no page number at all, it is likely to be an online-only journal. These should be cited as websites, e. Wyke, M. Ancient Rome and the traditions of film history. Screening the Past 6. World Meteorological Organization. The world's water: is there enough?
Geneva: World Meteorological Organization: Unesco. WMO no. Images that you have copied from books, websites and other texts should be referenced in the same way that you would any other material, with the appropriate formatting for the text they have been sourced from. Give an in-text citation i. This includes graphs and tables, as well as illustrations and photographs.
Like a direct quote, the image will have come from a specific place. So if it is in a book or journal, you should include a page or plate number. Give the image a caption, with a figure number, title and the reference. The image on the right shows how this would look if you were referencing in Harvard style and using brackets rather than footnotes. When you refer to it in your writing, use the figure number.
There was a peak in the number of students studying computing in but this has fallen in recent years see Figure 4. Ghosh, P. If the image is one you have created yourself, give a figure number and title in the caption and add Source: the author to show that it is your own work. The image on the left shows how you would do this; it is the same whichever style of referencing you are using.
MLA, APA, & CMS: How to Properly Format Your Papers
A research paper is a piece of academic writing that provides analysis, interpretation, and argument based on in-depth independent research. Research papers are similar to academic essays , but they are usually longer and more detailed assignments, designed to assess not only your writing skills but also your skills in scholarly research. Writing a research paper requires you to demonstrate a strong knowledge of your topic, engage with a variety of sources, and make an original contribution to the debate. This step-by-step guide takes you through the entire writing process, from understanding your assignment to proofreading your final draft. Table of contents Understand the assignment Choose a research paper topic Conduct preliminary research Develop a thesis statement Create a research paper outline Write a first draft of the research paper Write the introduction Write a compelling body of text Write the conclusion The second draft The revision process Research paper checklist Free lecture slides. Completing a research paper successfully means accomplishing the specific tasks set out for you.
How to write a research paper
A report is a document that presents information in an organized format for a specific audience and purpose. Although summaries of reports may be delivered orally, complete reports are almost always in the form of written documents. In modern business scenario, reports play a major role in the progress of business. Reports are the backbone to the thinking process of the establishment and they are responsible, to a great extent, in evolving an efficient or inefficient work environment.
This page contains sample papers formatted in seventh edition APA Style. The sample papers show the format students should use to submit a course assignment and that authors should use to submit a manuscript for publication in a professional journal. If you are writing or publishing an APA Style paper in another context e. The following two sample papers were published in annotated format in the Publication Manual and are reproduced here for your ease of reference. The annotations draw attention to relevant content and formatting and provide users with the relevant sections of the Publication Manual 7th ed. These sample papers demonstrate APA Style formatting standards for different paper types.
In academic writing, how you present your information technically is often seen as important as the ideas you are putting forth. Proper citing, quoting and referencing of source material allows you to convey your breadth of research in a language commonly shared by others in your discipline. Giving others a chance to review and compare your work under these established guidelines enables your instructors to better see the work on its own merits, opposed to getting sidetracked by technical inefficiencies. You MUST follow the rules like every other student: this is not an area where you want to stand out for doing things your own way. Writing for any academic purpose carries with it certain expectations and formatting consistencies, and a failure to properly understand how or why you cite your sources in a specific way can have negative effects on your written projects and communications.
Citation examples. This page lists the details you will need to include when writing citations for various types of source material. The examples given are in a version of Harvard style unless otherwise stated. Check the referencing style your course prefers , and see Styles of referencing for more information on how you should format your citations. Even if your course prefers Harvard, this is a style rather than a set of rules, so details of punctuation may differ. Always check your course handbook for the exact formatting preferred in your dept for instance, some depts prefer the date in brackets in the brief reference , and if there isn't a preferred format, choose one and use it throughout.