Oil and gas drilling process pdf
File Name: oil and gas drilling process .zip
- Controls for Drilling Oil and Gas Wells
- Drilling rig
- The seven steps of oil and natural gas extraction
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In addition to preparing new oil and gas wells for production, drilling teams also revitalize existing wells. This process involves repairing or stimulating the well—such as replacing the tubing or deepening the well—to restore or enhance its production of oil or gas.
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Controls for Drilling Oil and Gas Wells
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Drilling is a key technology in several applications of strategic or societal importance, including.
Drilling is the primary tool for extracting petroleum from rocks in the subsurface. Improvements in drilling technology that lower drilling costs and increase the rate of success in finding and extracting petroleum will have a direct benefit to the United States in terms of higher energy reserves, stable energy costs, and improved economic competitiveness in the drilling and service industries, which are increasingly global in character.
Drilling is also the primary tool for extracting geothermal energy hot water and steam from the subsurface for heat and electricity production. At present, geothermal energy is more expensive than fossil fuel energy, owing in part to the high cost of drilling.
The reduction in drilling costs through the introduction of improved technologies will allow more of this clean, domestic energy source to be utilized. Drilling is becoming an increasingly important tool for environmental protection and remediation. Drilling is a relatively noninvasive method for investigating and removing chemical and radioactive wastes from the subsurface, and for placing barriers in the subsurface to halt the spread of contamination.
Improvements in drilling technology will improve the efficiency of waste extraction and thereby lower the cost of cleanup efforts. Drilling technology, including tunneling technology, is finding increased application in the development of urban infrastructure utilities, transportation, and communications facilities , much of which is located underground.
A significant fraction of this development is supported directly or indirectly by taxpayers. Improvements in drilling technology will lower costs and could allow more infrastructure to be located underground, thereby increasing aboveground living space in urban areas. The U. This substantial level of activity should continue in the foreseeable future.
Although the U. Major petroleum companies are redirecting their exploration and production budgets for work abroad, and drilling activity by these companies in the lower 48 states has reached historically low levels. An increasingly large number of domestic wells are now drilled by small- to moderate-sized companies independents rather than major companies.
Many independent companies occupy niches in certain geographic or technological areas in order to reduce costs and increase success rates. In the future, domestic oil and gas development will probably be dominated by these technically oriented, small- to moderate-sized companies or by major companies that have decentralized activities Fisher, This change in the character of the industry reflects in part the changed character of the remaining resource base.
Statistics compiled by the API Table 3. In , the U. Oil well drilling continues to slightly outpace gas well drilling. TABLE 3. In , the number of gas wells drilled was 7,, compared to 8, oil wells. Drilling between depths of 1, and 9, ft accounted for most oil well drilling in ; the average depth for all wells in was 5, ft. This reflects the increasingly complex and elusive nature of potential reservoirs, as well as limitations of current methods for locating hydrocarbon deposits.
The proportion of wells drilled and the total drilled footage outside North America should increase as additional areas around the world are explored and developed. Complex geological conditions and difficult geographic circumstances in many of these areas will require the capability to remotely sense conditions in the subsurface and to drill holes in different orientations. In , the average cost for "conventional wells" i. Drilling costs reflect the depth, type, and location of wells and the costs of drilling-related services.
A comparison of wells drilled to similar depths at similar locations indicates an actual decrease in drilling costs for conventional wells since API, This likely reflects, in part, improved drilling efficiencies and lowered costs resulting from advances in technology. Petroleum well drilling in the United States is essential to ensure a stable domestic supply of energy.
Recent estimates of the volume of recoverable resources suggest that operators should be able to improve their ability to add more reserves per unit of effort through improved technology Fisher, In , a panel of oil resource analysts convened at the request of the U. Department of Energy concluded that there is a substantial remaining, recoverable volume of crude oil in the United States, on the order of 99 to billion barrels Oil Resources Panel, The range in estimates reflects different assumptions of price and technology.
This recoverable resource is the target of drilling for oil resource development Fisher, ; U. Department of the Interior, Although the undiscovered oil resource base is substantial in the aggregate, it is different from what has been pursued historically. The nature of the typical oil drilling target is changing from large reservoirs to smaller, less readily detectable reservoirs Fisher, The fields being developed today generally are more geologically complex; consequently, their development requires reserve growth drilling.
In summary, the potential oil resource accessible by drilling is significant, and U. The potential oil resource accessible by drilling is significant.
However, reservoirs are increasingly smaller in size and are located in more geologically complex settings. Advances in drilling technology are especially important for accessing these targets and reducing overall development costs.
Natural gas, which is composed mostly of methane, is a relatively clean and domestically abundant fuel that provides more than one-fifth of the primary energy used in the United States. Natural gas is particularly important in the residential sector, where it supplies nearly half of the energy consumed in U.
It can also be liquefied for use in transportation as compressed natural gas. There is potential for growth in the use of this fuel for transportation and for generation of electricity, given the large size of gas reserves in the United States and the availability of sophisticated natural gas production and delivery systems. The use of natural gas to generate electricity is projected to increase from 2.
Department of Energy, , primarily due to the relatively clean-burning nature of natural gas compared to other fossil fuels. At present, most natural gas is produced in the lower 48 states from conventional sources Table 3. In , about The majority of this supply Recent domestic supply projections indicate that a substantial resource of about 1, Tcf exists in the lower 48 states National Petroleum Council, ; Enron Corporation, At present rates of U. This resource includes Tcf of proved reserves, Tcf of conventional resources, and Tcf of unconventional resources National Petroleum Council, Major unconventional sources include.
For these sources, technological advances may be particularly critical to efficient exploration and development because reservoirs are difficult to detect and access. This is also true for conventional gas resources located at depths greater than 15, ft deep gas. Of the more than 2 million wells drilled to date in the United States, only about 16, reached depths of 15, ft or greater.
Tight gas and deep gas are likely targets for targeted drilling, directional and horizontal drilling, and smart drilling technology. Geothermal energy, including steam, hydrothermal, hot dry rock, and magma resources, constitutes a large and relatively untapped source of energy in the United States.
Geological Survey estimates total geothermal resources in the upper 10 km of the Earth's crust in the United States to be between , and 1,, quads Table 3. Geothermal energy is used in the vicinity of the production site for heating purposes e.
The cost of geothermally produced electricity exceeds that for most other energy. The current annual rate of domestic energy consumption is approximately 82 quads Energy Information Administration, Department of Energy, For comparison purposes, U. At current electricity prices in California, it is not economical to build a geothermal power plant or to purchase geothermal energy. Geothermal energy is more costly than oil and gas at current prices, owing to the relatively low energy capacity of geothermal water and steam.
In general, high numbers of large-diameter wells must be drilled in order to obtain sufficient water and steam for heating or electrical production. Geothermal reservoirs are frequently found in mixed hard and soft volcanic rocks, which makes drilling difficult and costly. Only a small portion of known geothermal resources can be exploited at current energy prices. Exploitable resources are usually found at shallow depths generally less than 4, ft and have extremely high productive capacities.
Standard Offer prices are established by the California Public Utilities Commission for the purchase of electricity from qualifying facilities. There is considerable room for improvement in technology for geothermal drilling. Improvements are needed to increase penetration rates and tool life in the mixed hard-soft volcanic rocks that form many geothermal reservoirs.
Improvements are also needed to reduce the number of ''discontinuities," such as lost circulation and stuck pipe, that typically occur while drilling in geothermal reservoirs. These improvements will allow deeper or less productive geothermal resources to be exploited.
There are approximately 45, sites across the United States that are in some way contaminated by radioactivity; half of these are owned by the government NWN, c. Perhaps the best-known of these is Hanford Washington , where there are single-shell and 28 double-shell storage tanks for radioactive waste ranging in size from 55, to 1 million gallons NWN, d. Other sites at Hanford contain smaller amounts of radioactive material, as well as nonradioactive pollutants such as chlorinated hydrocarbons.
The number of U. In a majority of cases, pollution is in the form of solid or liquid wastes that have escaped into the subsurface. Depths of penetration range from the immediate surface to at most a couple of hundred feet. Cleanup will involve two stages, namely, site characterization followed by remediation. No techniques are yet available that allow the extent of subsurface pollution to be estimated noninvasively. Further, remediation will always require access to the polluted zone.
Drilling is probably the least disruptive method presently available for examining the subsurface. Remediation methods that operate through one. The fraction of total remediation costs attributable to drilling is not easily estimated. The difficulty of access, the type of pollutant, and the nature and time of treatment will influence the total cost.
Whether this figure applies to typical environmental projects is not clear, but the sequence of operations—namely, identification of the zone of interest, test drilling, "production" drilling, and pumping operations to "produce" fluids—is of similar relative importance.
However, special circumstances may increase these costs substantially.
Index for Web Site. Surface Rights and Mineral Rights. Hunt Oil Company v. Industrial Commission Regulatory Role. Considerations for Mineral Owners. Mineral Lease: Granting clause.
I also see the effect of this profitability on a personal level, as my son-in-law—the captain on a Shell Oil ship—is starting exploratory drilling on the outer continental shelf off Alaska's Arctic coast. In other words, our collective memories are short. Our hunger for profits has erased the memory of not only the BP accident, but also of Exxon Valdez, and we do not care about the future, when the sun will keep coming up, while gas and oil will not. Since it seems that the drilling for oil and gas will be with us for some time, the only contribution our profession can make is to improve the safety of these processes. We can't change such facts as, for example, that in areas where fracking is taking place, the number of allergy patients tripled, or that an area of ice equal to Europe has already melted in the North Sea, but we can make the drilling process safer. Here I will describe how the conversion from the present, largely manual operation of well drilling, can benefit from automation. The key to the safe operation of the drilling process is a good understanding of a simple process, the operation of a flow loop in a pressurized "U-tube.
Crude oil and natural gas are complex mixtures of hydrocarbons, non- · Best method to extract these resources from deep formations are via.
The seven steps of oil and natural gas extraction
A drilling rig is an integrated system that drills wells , such as oil or water wells, in the earth's subsurface. Drilling rigs can be massive structures housing equipment used to drill water wells, oil wells, or natural gas extraction wells, or they can be small enough to be moved manually by one person and such are called augers. Drilling rigs can sample subsurface mineral deposits, test rock, soil and groundwater physical properties, and also can be used to install sub-surface fabrications, such as underground utilities, instrumentation, tunnels or wells.
Сьюзан на секунду задумалась. - ARA обслуживает в основном американских клиентов. Вы полагаете, что Северная Дакота может быть где-то. - Возможно. - Стратмор пожал плечами.
Странное? - Он начал беспокоиться. - Можешь выражаться яснее. Две минуты спустя Джабба мчался вниз к главному банку данных. ГЛАВА 85 Грег Хейл, распластавшись, лежал на полу помещения Третьего узла. Стратмор и Сьюзан отволокли его туда через шифровалку и связали ему руки и ноги толстым кабелем от одного из лазерных принтеров.
Да, панк, - сказала Росио на плохом английском и тотчас снова перешла на испанский.
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- Стратмор кивнул в сторону лаборатории систем безопасности. - Чатрукьян уже, надеюсь, ушел. - Не знаю, я его не видела. - Господи Иисусе, - простонал Стратмор. - Ну прямо цирк.
Основное энергоснабжение вырубилось, - сказал Стратмор, возникший за спиной Сьюзан. - Включилось питание от автономных генераторов. Это аварийное электропитание в шифровалке было устроено таким образом, чтобы системы охлаждения ТРАНСТЕКСТА имели приоритет перед всеми другими системами, в том числе освещением и электронными дверными замками. При этом внезапное отключение электроснабжения не прерывало работу ТРАНСТЕКСТА и его фреоновой системы охлаждения. Если бы этого не было, температура от трех миллионов работающих процессоров поднялась бы до недопустимого уровня - скорее всего силиконовые чипы воспламенились бы и расплавились.
Такая прическа была у Табу в день гибели. - Парень снова сплюнул. - Поэтому все его последователи, достойные этого названия, соорудили себе точно такие. Беккер долго молчал. Медленно, словно после укола транквилизатора, он поднял голову и начал внимательно рассматривать пассажиров.