Hydropower advantages and disadvantages pdf file
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- Benefits of Hydropower
- Hydroelectricity: What are the Advantages and Disadvantages?
- Review on hydropower in Myanmar
- Run-of-the-river hydroelectricity
Benefits of Hydropower
Most dams in the United States were built mainly for flood control, municipal water supply, and irrigation water. Although many of these dams have hydroelectric generators, only a small number of dams were built specifically for hydropower generation. Hydropower generators do not directly emit air pollutants. However, dams, reservoirs, and the operation of hydroelectric generators can affect the environment.
A dam that creates a reservoir or a dam that diverts water to a run-of-river hydropower plant may obstruct fish migration. A dam and reservoir can also change natural water temperatures, water chemistry, river flow characteristics, and silt loads. All of these changes can affect the ecology and the physical characteristics of the river.
These changes may have negative effects on native plants and on animals in and around the river. Reservoirs may cover important natural areas, agricultural land, or archeological sites.
A reservoir and the operation of the dam may also result in the relocation of people. The physical impacts of a dam and reservoir, the operation of the dam, and the use of the water can change the environment over a much larger area than the area a reservoir covers.
Manufacturing the concrete and steel in hydropower dams requires equipment that may produce emissions. If fossil fuels are the energy sources for making these materials, then the emissions from the equipment could be associated with the electricity that hydropower facilities generate. However, given the long operating lifetime of a hydropower plant 50 years to years these emissions are offset by the emissions-free hydroelectricity.
Greenhouse gases GHG such as carbon dioxide and methane form in natural aquatic systems and in human-made water storage reservoirs as a result of the aerobic and anaerobic decomposition of biomass in the water. The exact amounts of GHG that form in and are emitted from hydropower reservoirs is uncertain and depend on many site specific and regional factors. The Safe Harbor Dam on the Susquehanna River in Pennsylvania has elevators that lift migrating shad from the base of the dam to the top of the reservoir.
Hydropower turbines kill and injure some of the fish that pass through the turbine. The U. Many species of fish, such as salmon and shad, swim up rivers and streams from the sea to reproduce in their spawning grounds in the beds of rivers and streams. Dams can block their way. Different approaches to fixing this problem include the construction of fish ladders and elevators that help fish move around or over dams to the spawning grounds upstream. Hydropower explained Hydropower and the environment.
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Hydroelectricity: What are the Advantages and Disadvantages?
News, analysis, experiments, videos, games, and educational paths on the issues of energy and the environment for complete and topical information. There are many advantages in using glacier melt waters for the production of hydroelectric power. Glaciers are a source of water that is constant and sure during the summer months, unlike the water of rivers and torrents whose capacity is subjected to remarkable variations depending on precipitation. Consequently, in the summer months, when most of the water courses on the surface suffer a lack of water, the water courses fed by the glaciers instead, are rich in this precious resource. The energy obtained from glaciers can therefore be used in the periods in which the other water resources register minimum levels and due to the melting water of the glaciers it is possible to face situations of energetic emergency such as the recent summer black-outs.
In a hydroelectric scheme, water is stored in a dam and passed through a turbine and generator set before being released back into the river downstream. It is important to note that the power station does not consume any water in this process, it only uses the energy contained in running water to turn its turbines. Advantages : Water is a renewable source of energy. The process of electricity generation has no emissions. Disadvantages : SA is a dry country with few rivers suitable for hydroelectric plants.
Review on hydropower in Myanmar
Therefore, hydropower is essential and considered as an economical factor for producing electricity. There are many untapped hydropower resources in the world. This paper is the review paper which presents about the condition of the hydroelectricity in Myanmar in detail.
Most dams in the United States were built mainly for flood control, municipal water supply, and irrigation water. Although many of these dams have hydroelectric generators, only a small number of dams were built specifically for hydropower generation.
Dams are extremely expensive to build and must be built to a very high standard. The high cost of dam construction means that they must operate for many decades to become profitable. The flooding of large areas of land means that the natural environment is destroyed. People living in villages and towns that are in the valley to be flooded, must move out. This means that they lose their farms and businesses. In some countries, people are forcibly removed so that hydro-power schemes can go ahead.
Hydropower, the creation of mechanical energy through the transfer of kinetic energy created by the flow of water, is currently the only large-scale renewable alternative to traditional electricity sources, such as fossil fuels . As economic development spreads throughout the world, so does the demand for electricity, causing global electricity production to double in just the last two decades. Worldwide, 66 countries already generate at least half of their power from hydroelectricity, but only one third of the economically feasible potential of hydroelectric power has been realized . Widespread poverty has inhibited the access to electricity in much of the developing world, additionally restricting the availability of elementary services like light and running water. The creation and expansion of sustainable, cost-effective, and renewable energy sources is key, as development cannot be enabled without energy .
Advantages of power from glaciers
Run-of-river hydroelectricity ROR or run-of-the-river hydroelectricity is a type of hydroelectric generation plant whereby little or no water storage is provided. Run-of-the-river power plants may have no water storage at all or a limited amount of storage, in which case the storage reservoir is referred to as pondage. A plant without pondage is subject to seasonal river flows, thus the plant will operate as an intermittent energy source. Conventional hydro uses reservoirs , which regulate water for flood control, dispatchable electrical power , and the provision of fresh water for agriculture. Run-of-the-river, or ROR, hydroelectricity is considered ideal for streams or rivers that can sustain a minimum flow or those regulated by a lake or reservoir upstream. A small dam is usually built to create a headpond ensuring that there is enough water entering the penstock pipes that lead to the turbines , which are at a lower elevation.
Chiyembekezo S. Kaunda, Cuthbert Z. Kimambo, Torbjorn K. Box , Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Hydropower is an important renewable energy resource worldwide. However, its development is accompanied with environmental and social drawbacks.
Hydro power plants provide clean and affordable electricity in large quantities. They are often the main renewable energy technology choice for governments due to its ability to deliver reliable baseload energy with very minimal fluctuation. Hydro power plants are also able to accommodate changing demand and suited to large scale network response.