Encyclopedia of child behavior and development pdf

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encyclopedia of child behavior and development pdf

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The most important development in early childhood social cognition is the development of theory of mind. The basis of this crucial ability lies in the development of theory of mind. The development of theory of mind from birth to 5 years of age is now well described in the research literature 4,5 — or at least, we can describe how infants and children behave in experimental situations as well as in natural settings.

Skip navigation. Isotretinoin is a molecule and a byproduct metabolite of vitamin A, and in greater than normal amounts in pregnant women, it can cause fetal abnormalities including cleft lips, ear and eye defects, and mental retardation. Isotretinoin is commonly called by its trade name Accutane, and it's a chemical compound derived from vitamin A, also called retinoic acid.

Social cognition

Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by difficulties with social interaction and communication, and by restricted and repetitive behavior. Autism is associated with a combination of genetic and environmental factors.

Early behavioral interventions or speech therapy can help autistic children gain self-care , social, and communication skills.

Globally, autism is estimated to affect Autism is a highly variable, neurodevelopmental disorder [27] whose symptoms first appear during infancy or childhood, and generally follows a steady course without remission. Other aspects, such as atypical eating, are also common but are not essential for diagnosis. Social deficits distinguish autism and the related autism spectrum disorders ASD; see Classification from other developmental disorders.

Noted autistic Temple Grandin described her inability to understand the social communication of neurotypicals , or people with typical neural development , as leaving her feeling "like an anthropologist on Mars".

Unusual social development becomes apparent early in childhood. Autistic infants show less attention to social stimuli, smile and look at others less often, and respond less to their own name. Autistic toddlers differ more strikingly from social norms ; for example, they have less eye contact and turn-taking , and do not have the ability to use simple movements to express themselves, such as pointing at things.

However, they do form attachments to their primary caregivers. Children with high-functioning autism have more intense and frequent loneliness compared to non-autistic peers, despite the common belief that autistic children prefer to be alone.

Making and maintaining friendships often proves to be difficult for those with autism. For them, the quality of friendships, not the number of friends, predicts how lonely they feel. Functional friendships, such as those resulting in invitations to parties, may affect the quality of life more deeply. There are many anecdotal reports, but few systematic studies, of aggression and violence in individuals with ASD.

The limited data suggest that, in children with intellectual disability, autism is associated with aggression, destruction of property, and meltdowns. About a third to a half of autistic people do not develop enough natural speech to meet their daily communication needs. In the second and third years, autistic children have less frequent and less diverse babbling, consonants, words, and word combinations; their gestures are less often integrated with words.

Autistic children are less likely to make requests or share experiences, and are more likely to simply repeat others' words echolalia [43] [44] or reverse pronouns. In a pair of studies, high-functioning autistic children aged 8—15 performed equally well as, and as adults better than, individually matched controls at basic language tasks involving vocabulary and spelling.

Both autistic groups performed worse than controls at complex language tasks such as figurative language, comprehension and inference. As people are often sized up initially from their basic language skills, these studies suggest that people speaking to autistic individuals are more likely to overestimate what their audience comprehends. Autistic individuals can display many forms of repetitive or restricted behavior, which the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised RBS-R categorizes as follows.

No single repetitive or self-injurious behavior seems to be specific to autism, but autism appears to have an elevated pattern of occurrence and severity of these behaviors. Autistic individuals may have symptoms that are independent of the diagnosis, but that can affect the individual or the family. Selectivity is the most common problem, although eating rituals and food refusal also occur.

There is tentative evidence that gender dysphoria occurs more frequently in autistic people. Gastrointestinal problems are one of the most commonly associated medical disorders in autistic people. Parents of children with ASD have higher levels of stress. However, they reported lower levels of closeness and intimacy than siblings of children with Down syndrome; siblings of individuals with ASD have greater risk of negative well-being and poorer sibling relationships as adults.

It has long been presumed that there is a common cause at the genetic, cognitive, and neural levels for autism's characteristic triad of symptoms. Autism has a strong genetic basis, although the genetics of autism are complex and it is unclear whether ASD is explained more by rare mutations with major effects, or by rare multigene interactions of common genetic variants.

Typically, autism cannot be traced to a Mendelian single-gene mutation or to a single chromosome abnormality , and none of the genetic syndromes associated with ASDs have been shown to selectively cause ASD.

Maternal nutrition and inflammation during preconception and pregnancy influences fetal neurodevelopment. Intrauterine growth restriction is associated with ASD, in both term and preterm infants. Exposure to air pollution during pregnancy, especially heavy metals and particulates, may increase the risk of autism. Some, such as the MMR vaccine, have been completely disproven. Parents may first become aware of autistic symptoms in their child around the time of a routine vaccination.

This has led to unsupported theories blaming vaccine "overload" , a vaccine preservative , or the MMR vaccine for causing autism. Autism's symptoms result from maturation-related changes in various systems of the brain. How autism occurs is not well understood. Its mechanism can be divided into two areas: the pathophysiology of brain structures and processes associated with autism, and the neuropsychological linkages between brain structures and behaviors. There is evidence that gut—brain axis abnormalities may be involved.

Neural connections and the immune system are a pathway that may allow diseases originated in the intestine to spread to the brain. Several lines of evidence point to synaptic dysfunction as a cause of autism. Diagnosis is based on behavior, not cause or mechanism. These deficits are present in early childhood, typically before age three, and lead to clinically significant functional impairment. The disturbance must not be better accounted for by Rett syndrome , intellectual disability or global developmental delay.

Several diagnostic instruments are available. A pediatrician commonly performs a preliminary investigation by taking developmental history and physically examining the child. If warranted, diagnosis and evaluations are conducted with help from ASD specialists, observing and assessing cognitive, communication, family, and other factors using standardized tools, and taking into account any associated medical conditions.

Clinical genetics evaluations are often done once ASD is diagnosed, particularly when other symptoms already suggest a genetic cause. Commercial availability of tests may precede adequate understanding of how to use test results, given the complexity of autism's genetics.

ASD can sometimes be diagnosed by age 14 months, although diagnosis becomes increasingly stable over the first three years of life: for example, a one-year-old who meets diagnostic criteria for ASD is less likely than a three-year-old to continue to do so a few years later. Signs of autism may be more challenging for clinicians to detect in females. Conversely, the cost of screening and diagnosis and the challenge of obtaining payment can inhibit or delay diagnosis.

Autism is one of the five pervasive developmental disorders PDD , which are characterized by widespread abnormalities of social interactions and communication, and severely restricted interests and highly repetitive behavior.

Of the five PDD forms, Asperger syndrome is closest to autism in signs and likely causes; Rett syndrome and childhood disintegrative disorder share several signs with autism, but may have unrelated causes; PDD not otherwise specified PDD-NOS; also called atypical autism is diagnosed when the criteria are not met for a more specific disorder.

In this article, autism refers to the classic autistic disorder; in clinical practice, though, autism , ASD , and PDD are often used interchangeably.

Research into causes has been hampered by the inability to identify biologically meaningful subgroups within the autistic population [] and by the traditional boundaries between the disciplines of psychiatry , psychology , neurology and pediatrics. Autism has long been thought to cover a wide spectrum , ranging from individuals with severe impairments—who may be silent, developmentally disabled , and prone to frequent repetitive behavior such as hand flapping and rocking—to high functioning individuals who may have active but distinctly odd social approaches, narrowly focused interests, and verbose, pedantic communication.

About half of parents of children with ASD notice their child's unusual behaviors by age 18 months, and about four-fifths notice by age 24 months. Delay in referral for such testing may delay early diagnosis and treatment and affect the long-term outcome". The United States Preventive Services Task Force in found it was unclear if screening was beneficial or harmful among children in whom there is no concern. In contrast, in the UK, children whose families or doctors recognize possible signs of autism are screened.

It is not known which approach is more effective. The main goals when treating autistic children are to lessen associated deficits and family distress, and to increase quality of life and functional independence. In general, higher IQs are correlated with greater responsiveness to treatment and improved treatment outcomes. Studies of interventions have methodological problems that prevent definitive conclusions about efficacy.

Educational interventions often used include applied behavior analysis ABA , developmental models, structured teaching, speech and language therapy , social skills therapy, and occupational therapy and cognitive behavioral interventions in adults without intellectual disability to reduce depression, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Despite the recent development of parent training models, these interventions have demonstrated effectiveness in numerous studies, being evaluated as a probable efficacious mode of treatment. Early, intensive ABA therapy has demonstrated effectiveness in enhancing communication and adaptive functioning in preschool children; [6] [] it is also well-established for improving the intellectual performance of that age group.

Medications may be used to treat ASD symptoms that interfere with integrating a child into home or school when behavioral treatment fails. Although many alternative therapies and interventions are available, few are supported by scientific studies. The preference that children with autism have for unconventional foods can lead to reduction in bone cortical thickness with this being greater in those on casein-free diets , as a consequence of the low intake of calcium and vitamin D ; however, suboptimal bone development in ASD has also been associated with lack of exercise and gastrointestinal disorders.

Although popularly used as an alternative treatment for people with autism, as of there is no good evidence to recommend a gluten- and casein-free diet as a standard treatment.

The authors analyzed the prospective trials conducted to date that studied the efficacy of the gluten- and casein-free diet in children with ASD 4 in total. All of them compared gluten- and casein-free diet versus normal diet with a control group 2 double-blind randomized controlled trials, 1 double-blind crossover trial, 1 single-blind trial.

In the other two studies, whose duration was 3 months, no significant effect was observed. Results of a systematic review on interventions to address health outcomes among autistic adults found emerging evidence to support mindfulness -based interventions for improving mental health.

This includes decreasing stress, anxiety, ruminating thoughts, anger, and aggression. There is no known cure. Few high-quality studies address long-term prognosis. Some adults show modest improvement in communication skills, but a few decline; no study has focused on autism after midlife.

Many autistic people face significant obstacles in transitioning to adulthood. About half of people in their 20s with autism are not employed. As of , reviews estimate a prevalence of 1—2 per 1, for autism and close to 6 per 1, for ASD. The number of reported cases of autism increased dramatically in the s and early s. This increase is largely attributable to changes in diagnostic practices, referral patterns, availability of services, age at diagnosis, and public awareness, [] [] though unidentified environmental risk factors cannot be ruled out.

Males are at higher risk for ASD than females. The sex ratio averages 4. Although the evidence does not implicate any single pregnancy-related risk factor as a cause of autism, the risk of autism is associated with advanced age in either parent, and with diabetes, bleeding, and use of psychiatric drugs in the mother during pregnancy. Several other conditions are common in children with autism.

A few examples of autistic symptoms and treatments were described long before autism was named. The Table Talk of Martin Luther , compiled by his notetaker, Mathesius, contains the story of a year-old boy who may have been severely autistic. The New Latin word autismus English translation autism was coined by the Swiss psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler in as he was defining symptoms of schizophrenia.

The word autism first took its modern sense in when Hans Asperger of the Vienna University Hospital adopted Bleuler's terminology autistic psychopaths in a lecture in German about child psychology.

The Philosophy of Childhood

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The field of educational psychology draws from a variety of diverse disciplines including human development across the life span, measurement and statistics, learning and motivation, and teaching. And within these different disciplines, many other fields are featured including psychology, anthropology, education, sociology, public health, school psychology, counseling, history, and philosophy. In fact, when taught at the college or university level, educational psychology is an ambitious course that undertakes the presentation of many different topics all tied together by the theme of how the individual can best function in an "educational" setting, loosely defined as anything from pre-school through adult education. Educational psychology can be defined as the application of what we know about learning and motivation, development, and measurement and statistics to educational settings both school- and community-based. Have you created a personal profile? Login or create a profile so that you can save clips, playlists and searches.

A child left alone in a dirty apartment while his parent sits in a bar drinking -- this is the sort of picture "neglect" often brings to mind. But child neglect can take many forms, some blatant, some so subtle as to be nearly undetectable. The American Medical Association AMA defines it as "an act or failure to act that results in serious harm or imminent risk of harm. Of the four types, it is also the most common. Parents may neglect children without wishing to, as do poor parents who don't have the money for nourishing food. And neglect spans class lines, as in the case of wealthy latchkey kids with parents too busy to provide steady love and affection. Failure to meet a child's basic needs may take any of the following forms:.


Request PDF | On Feb 4, , Sharon Morgillo Freeman Clevenger published Encyclopedia of Child Behavior and Development | Find, read and cite all the.


Encyclopedia of Infant and Early Childhood Development

Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by difficulties with social interaction and communication, and by restricted and repetitive behavior. Autism is associated with a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Early behavioral interventions or speech therapy can help autistic children gain self-care , social, and communication skills. Globally, autism is estimated to affect

Encyclopedia of Infant and Early Childhood Development, Second Edition, provides a comprehensive entry point into the existing literature on child development in the fields of psychology, genetics, neuroscience and sociology. Although some medical information is included, the emphasis lies mainly in normal growth, primarily from a psychological perspective. Comprehensive and in-depth scholarly articles cover theoretical, applied and basic science topics, providing an interdisciplinary approach. All articles have been completely updated, making this resource ideal for a wide range of readers, including advanced undergraduate and graduate students, researchers and clinicians in developmental psychology, medicine, nursing, social science and early childhood education.

If one was accused of a sin, all they had to do is to read a verse in Latin and if done correctly their case would be forwarded to the bishop. The messenger brings important news. Chivalry and Courtly Love: Ideal but Unreal a.

Encyclopedia of Educational Psychology

It seems that you're in Germany. We have a dedicated site for Germany. This major reference work breaks new ground as an electronic resource for students, educators, researchers, and professionals. Sam Goldstein, Ph. He is on staff at the University Neuropsychiatric Institute.

Извините, что пришлось вас разбудить. Почему я звоню. Я только что выяснил, что ТРАНСТЕКСТ устарел.

Если бы Сьюзан слышала меня сейчас, - подумал.  - Я тоже толстый и одинокий. Я тоже хотел бы с ней покувыркаться. Заплачу кучу денег. Хотя спектакль и показался достаточно убедительным, но Беккер зашел слишком. Проституция в Испании запрещена, а сеньор Ролдан был человеком осторожным.


The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Child Development is an Brain and behavioral development (II): cortical. Behavioral Science, Division of Child and.


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