Natural and anthropogenic sources of air pollution pdf
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- Anthropogenic Air Pollution Sources
- Outdoor Air Pollution
- Where Does Air Pollution Come From?
- Anthropogenic Air Pollution Sources
Anthropogenic Air Pollution Sources
One of our era's greatest scourges is air pollution, on account not only of its impact on climate change but also its impact on public and individual health due to increasing morbidity and mortality.
There are many pollutants that are major factors in disease in humans. Among them, Particulate Matter PM , particles of variable but very small diameter, penetrate the respiratory system via inhalation, causing respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, reproductive and central nervous system dysfunctions, and cancer.
Despite the fact that ozone in the stratosphere plays a protective role against ultraviolet irradiation, it is harmful when in high concentration at ground level, also affecting the respiratory and cardiovascular system.
Furthermore, nitrogen oxide, sulfur dioxide, Volatile Organic Compounds VOCs , dioxins, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs are all considered air pollutants that are harmful to humans.
Carbon monoxide can even provoke direct poisoning when breathed in at high levels. Heavy metals such as lead, when absorbed into the human body, can lead to direct poisoning or chronic intoxication, depending on exposure.
Diseases occurring from the aforementioned substances include principally respiratory problems such as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease COPD , asthma, bronchiolitis, and also lung cancer, cardiovascular events, central nervous system dysfunctions, and cutaneous diseases. Last but not least, climate change resulting from environmental pollution affects the geographical distribution of many infectious diseases, as do natural disasters.
The only way to tackle this problem is through public awareness coupled with a multidisciplinary approach by scientific experts; national and international organizations must address the emergence of this threat and propose sustainable solutions. The interactions between humans and their physical surroundings have been extensively studied, as multiple human activities influence the environment.
The environment is a coupling of the biotic living organisms and microorganisms and the abiotic hydrosphere, lithosphere, and atmosphere. Pollution is defined as the introduction into the environment of substances harmful to humans and other living organisms.
Pollutants are harmful solids, liquids, or gases produced in higher than usual concentrations that reduce the quality of our environment. Human activities have an adverse effect on the environment by polluting the water we drink, the air we breathe, and the soil in which plants grow.
Although the industrial revolution was a great success in terms of technology, society, and the provision of multiple services, it also introduced the production of huge quantities of pollutants emitted into the air that are harmful to human health. Without any doubt, the global environmental pollution is considered an international public health issue with multiple facets. Social, economic, and legislative concerns and lifestyle habits are related to this major problem.
Clearly, urbanization and industrialization are reaching unprecedented and upsetting proportions worldwide in our era. Anthropogenic air pollution is one of the biggest public health hazards worldwide, given that it accounts for about 9 million deaths per year 1. Without a doubt, all of the aforementioned are closely associated with climate change, and in the event of danger, the consequences can be severe for mankind 2.
Climate changes and the effects of global planetary warming seriously affect multiple ecosystems, causing problems such as food safety issues, ice and iceberg melting, animal extinction, and damage to plants 3 , 4. Air pollution has various health effects.
The health of susceptible and sensitive individuals can be impacted even on low air pollution days. Short-term exposure to air pollutants is closely related to COPD Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease , cough, shortness of breath, wheezing, asthma, respiratory disease, and high rates of hospitalization a measurement of morbidity.
The long-term effects associated with air pollution are chronic asthma, pulmonary insufficiency, cardiovascular diseases, and cardiovascular mortality. According to a Swedish cohort study, diabetes seems to be induced after long-term air pollution exposure 5.
Moreover, air pollution seems to have various malign health effects in early human life, such as respiratory, cardiovascular, mental, and perinatal disorders 3 , leading to infant mortality or chronic disease in adult age 6. National reports have mentioned the increased risk of morbidity and mortality 1.
These studies were conducted in many places around the world and show a correlation between daily ranges of particulate matter PM concentration and daily mortality. Climate shifts and global planetary warming 3 could aggravate the situation. Besides, increased hospitalization an index of morbidity has been registered among the elderly and susceptible individuals for specific reasons. Fine and ultrafine particulate matter seems to be associated with more serious illnesses 6 , as it can invade the deepest parts of the airways and more easily reach the bloodstream.
Air pollution mainly affects those living in large urban areas, where road emissions contribute the most to the degradation of air quality. There is also a danger of industrial accidents, where the spread of a toxic fog can be fatal to the populations of the surrounding areas. The dispersion of pollutants is determined by many parameters, most notably atmospheric stability and wind 6. In developing countries 7 , the problem is more serious due to overpopulation and uncontrolled urbanization along with the development of industrialization.
This leads to poor air quality, especially in countries with social disparities and a lack of information on sustainable management of the environment. The use of fuels such as wood fuel or solid fuel for domestic needs due to low incomes exposes people to bad-quality, polluted air at home. It is of note that three billion people around the world are using the above sources of energy for their daily heating and cooking needs 8.
In developing countries, the women of the household seem to carry the highest risk for disease development due to their longer duration exposure to the indoor air pollution 8 , 9. Due to its fast industrial development and overpopulation, China is one of the Asian countries confronting serious air pollution problems 10 , The lung cancer mortality observed in China is associated with fine particles As stated already, long-term exposure is associated with deleterious effects on the cardiovascular system 3 , 5.
However, it is interesting to note that cardiovascular diseases have mostly been observed in developed and high-income countries rather than in the developing low-income countries exposed highly to air pollution Extreme air pollution is recorded in India, where the air quality reaches hazardous levels. New Delhi is one of the more polluted cities in India. Flights in and out of New Delhi International Airport are often canceled due to the reduced visibility associated with air pollution.
Pollution is occurring both in urban and rural areas in India due to the fast industrialization, urbanization, and rise in use of motorcycle transportation. Nevertheless, biomass combustion associated with heating and cooking needs and practices is a major source of household air pollution in India and in Nepal 14 , There is spatial heterogeneity in India, as areas with diverse climatological conditions and population and education levels generate different indoor air qualities, with higher PM 2.
The cold climate of the North Indian areas may be the main reason for this, as longer periods at home and more heating are necessary compared to in the tropical climate of Southern India. Household air pollution in India is associated with major health effects, especially in women and young children, who stay indoors for longer periods.
Chronic obstructive respiratory disease CORD and lung cancer are mostly observed in women, while acute lower respiratory disease is seen in young children under 5 years of age An association of pollution with mortality was reported on the basis of monitoring of outdoor pollution in six US metropolitan cities In every case, it seems that mortality was closely related to the levels of fine, inhalable, and sulfate particles more than with the levels of total particulate pollution, aerosol acidity, sulfur dioxide, or nitrogen dioxide Based on the magnitude of the public health impact, it is certain that different kinds of interventions should be taken into account.
Success and effectiveness in controlling air pollution, specifically at the local level, have been reported. Adequate technological means are applied considering the source and the nature of the emission as well as its impact on health and the environment. Without a doubt, a detailed emission inventory must record all sources in a given area.
Beyond considering the above sources and their nature, topography and meteorology should also be considered, as stated previously. Assessment of the control policies and methods is often extrapolated from the local to the regional and then to the global scale. Air pollution may be dispersed and transported from one region to another area located far away.
Air pollution management means the reduction to acceptable levels or possible elimination of air pollutants whose presence in the air affects our health or the environmental ecosystem.
Private and governmental entities and authorities implement actions to ensure the air quality Air quality standards and guidelines were adopted for the different pollutants by the WHO and EPA as a tool for the management of air quality 1 , These standards have to be compared to the emissions inventory standards by causal analysis and dispersion modeling in order to reveal the problematic areas Inventories are generally based on a combination of direct measurements and emissions modeling As an example, we state here the control measures at the source through the use of catalytic converters in cars.
These are devices that turn the pollutants and toxic gases produced from combustion engines into less-toxic pollutants by catalysis through redox reactions In Greece, the use of private cars was restricted by tracking their license plates in order to reduce traffic congestion during rush hour Concerning industrial emissions, collectors and closed systems can keep the air pollution to the minimal standards imposed by legislation Current strategies to improve air quality require an estimation of the economic value of the benefits gained from proposed programs.
These proposed programs by public authorities, and directives are issued with guidelines to be respected. While both standards and directives are based on different mechanisms, significant success has been achieved in the reduction of overall emissions and associated health and environmental effects In this vein, funds have been financing, directly or indirectly, projects related to air quality along with the technical infrastructure to maintain good air quality.
These plans focus on an inventory of databases from air quality environmental planning awareness campaigns. Moreover, pollution measures of air emissions may be taken for vehicles, machines, and industries in urban areas. Technological innovation can only be successful if it is able to meet the needs of society.
In this sense, technology must reflect the decision-making practices and procedures of those involved in risk assessment and evaluation and act as a facilitator in providing information and assessments to enable decision makers to make the best decisions possible. Summarizing the aforementioned in order to design an effective air quality control strategy, several aspects must be considered: environmental factors and ambient air quality conditions, engineering factors and air pollutant characteristics, and finally, economic operating costs for technological improvement and administrative and legal costs.
Considering the economic factor, competitiveness through neoliberal concepts is offering a solution to environmental problems The development of environmental governance, along with technological progress, has initiated the deployment of a dialogue. Environmental politics has created objections and points of opposition between different political parties, scientists, media, and governmental and non-governmental organizations Radical environmental activism actions and movements have been created The rise of the new information and communication technologies ICTs are many times examined as to whether and in which way they have influenced means of communication and social movements such as activism Nowadays, multiple digital technologies can be used to produce a digital activism outcome on environmental issues.
More specifically, devices with online capabilities such as computers or mobile phones are being used as a way to pursue change in political and social affairs In the present paper, we focus on the sources of environmental pollution in relation to public health and propose some solutions and interventions that may be of interest to environmental legislators and decision makers.
It is known that the majority of environmental pollutants are emitted through large-scale human activities such as the use of industrial machinery, power-producing stations, combustion engines, and cars. Some other human activities are also influencing our environment to a lesser extent, such as field cultivation techniques, gas stations, fuel tanks heaters, and cleaning procedures 32 , as well as several natural sources, such as volcanic and soil eruptions and forest fires.
The classification of air pollutants is based mainly on the sources producing pollution. Therefore, it is worth mentioning the four main sources, following the classification system: Major sources, Area sources, Mobile sources, and Natural sources.
Major sources include the emission of pollutants from power stations, refineries, and petrochemicals, the chemical and fertilizer industries, metallurgical and other industrial plants, and, finally, municipal incineration.
Indoor area sources include domestic cleaning activities, dry cleaners, printing shops, and petrol stations. Mobile sources include automobiles, cars, railways, airways, and other types of vehicles. Finally, natural sources include, as stated previously, physical disasters 33 such as forest fire, volcanic erosion, dust storms, and agricultural burning. However, many classification systems have been proposed. Another type of classification is a grouping according to the recipient of the pollution, as follows:.
Outdoor Air Pollution
One of our era's greatest scourges is air pollution, on account not only of its impact on climate change but also its impact on public and individual health due to increasing morbidity and mortality. There are many pollutants that are major factors in disease in humans. Among them, Particulate Matter PM , particles of variable but very small diameter, penetrate the respiratory system via inhalation, causing respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, reproductive and central nervous system dysfunctions, and cancer. Despite the fact that ozone in the stratosphere plays a protective role against ultraviolet irradiation, it is harmful when in high concentration at ground level, also affecting the respiratory and cardiovascular system. Furthermore, nitrogen oxide, sulfur dioxide, Volatile Organic Compounds VOCs , dioxins, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs are all considered air pollutants that are harmful to humans. Carbon monoxide can even provoke direct poisoning when breathed in at high levels. Heavy metals such as lead, when absorbed into the human body, can lead to direct poisoning or chronic intoxication, depending on exposure.
There are two main source of air pollution: naturally occurring non-anthropogenic pollutants (such as volcanic eruptions, forest fires, and dust).
Where Does Air Pollution Come From?
Read this article to learn about the types, sources, effects and control of air pollution! Air pollution is a change in the physical, chemical and biological characteristic of air that causes adverse effects on humans and other organisms. Image Courtesy : giglig.
Box , Kuwait, Kuwait. We investigate the temporal characteristics of major air pollutants collected from 44 air quality stations over the city of Seoul, Korea, namely, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, particular matter at 10 microns, and sulfur dioxide SO 2 between and The four pollutants under study show varying temporal characteristics with different annual mean concentration patterns. The monthly mean of mentioned pollutants all show similar low concentrations during the summer season and high concentrations during the winter season. We found that pollution is strongly linked to temperature and precipitation variability, especially during the fall season.
Air Pollution and Human Cancer pp Cite as.
Anthropogenic Air Pollution Sources
Air pollution is the presence of substances in the atmosphere that are harmful to the health of humans and other living beings , or cause damage to the climate or to materials. There are different types of air pollutants, such as gases such as ammonia , carbon monoxide , sulfur dioxide , nitrous oxides , methane and chlorofluorocarbons , particulates both organic and inorganic , and biological molecules. Air pollution may cause diseases, allergies and even death to humans; it may also cause harm to other living organisms such as animals and food crops, and may damage the natural or built environment.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Carbon monoxide CO —a colorless, odorless, tasteless, and toxic air pollutant—is produced in the incomplete combustion of carbon-containing fuels, such as gasoline, natural gas, oil, coal, and wood. The largest anthropogenic source of CO in the United States is vehicle emissions. Breathing the high concentrations of CO typical of a polluted environment leads to reduced oxygen O 2 transport by hemoglobin and has health effects that include headaches, increased risk of chest pain for persons with heart disease, and impaired reaction timing. In the s, vehicle emissions led to increased and unhealthful ambient CO concentrations in many U. The locations that continue to have high concentrations of CO tend to have topographical or meteorological characteristics that exacerbate pollution; for example, strong temperature inversions or the existence of nearby hills that inhibit wind flow may limit pollutant dispersion.
Username Get help or learn how to sign up. Air pollution can be formed through both natural and man-made processes. Some examples of these are listed below:. Some of the natural sources of air pollution are organic compounds from plants, sea salt, suspended soils and dusts e. Other natural sources are released during catastrophes such as volcanic eruptions and forest fires. Large amounts of harmful gases and smoke are released which can increase background pollution levels for years - even in areas far away from the original source. Ozone is one of the most common natural air pollutants.
and particles released into the atmosphere from natural and/ only the air pollution caused by sources of anthropogenic. origin. However, not.