Controls of weather and climate pdf

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controls of weather and climate pdf

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All EGU highlight articles. Around the world each year, extreme precipitation events cause catastrophic flooding that results in tragic loss of life and costly damage to infrastructure and property. However, a variety of different weather systems can cause these extreme events, so a detailed understanding of the atmospheric processes that lead to their formation is crucial.

Elements and Controls of Weather and Climate

Skip to content. Skip to navigation. There are many different factors that affect climate around the world. The most important natural factors are:. It is now widely accepted that human activity is also affecting climate, and that the impact is not the same everywhere. For example, changes appear to be happening faster near the poles than in many other places. The sea affects the climate of a place.

Coastal areas are cooler and wetter than inland areas. Clouds form when warm air from inland areas meets cool air from the sea. The centre of continents are subject to a large range of temperatures. In the summer, temperatures can be very hot and dry as moisture from the sea evaporates before it reaches the centre of the land mass. Ocean currents can increase or reduce temperatures.

The diagram below shows the ocean currents of the world view original source map. The main ocean current that affects the UK is the Gulf Stream. S coast, and from there to the British Isles. The Gulf of Mexico has higher air temperatures than Britain as it is closer to the equator.

This means that the air coming from the Gulf of Mexico to Britain is also warm. However, the air is also quite moist as it travels over the Atlantic ocean. This is one reason why Britain often receives wet weather. The Gulf Stream keeps the west coast of Europe free from ice in the winter and, in the summer, warmer than other places of a similar latitude. Winds that blow from the sea often bring rain to the coast and dry weather to inland areas.

Winds that blow to Britain from warm inland areas such as Africa will be warm and dry. Winds that blow to Britain from inland areas such as central Europe will be cold and dry in winter. Britain's prevailing i. These winds are cool in the summer, mild in the winter and tend to bring wet weather. Climate can be affected by mountains. Mountains receive more rainfall than low lying areas because as air is forced over the higher ground it cools, causing moist air to condense and fall out as rainfall.

The higher the place is above sea level the colder it will be. This happens because as altitude increases, air becomes thinner and is less able to absorb and retain heat. That is why you may see snow on the top of mountains all year round. At the poles, energy from the sun reaches the Earth's surface at lower angles and passes through a thicker layer of atmosphere than at the equator.

This means the climate is cooler further from the Equator. The poles also experience the greatest difference between summer and winter day lengths: in the summer there is a period when the sun does not set at the poles; conversely the poles also experience a period of total darkness during winter.

In contrast, daylength varies little at the equator. The warmer water pumps energy and moisture into the atmosphere, altering global wind and rainfall patterns. The phenomenon has caused tornadoes in Florida, smog in Indonesia, and forest fires in Brazil. The factors above affect the climate naturally. However, we cannot forget the influence of humans on our climate.

Early on in human history our effect on the climate would have been quite small. However, as populations increased and trees were cut down in large numbers, so our influence on the climate increased.

Trees take in carbon dioxide and produce oxygen. A reduction in trees will therefore have increased the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The Industrial Revolution, starting at the end of the 19th Century, has had a huge effect on climate. The invention of the motor engine and the increased burning of fossil fuels have increased the amount of carbon dioxide a greenhouse gas - more on that later in the atmosphere.

E-mail ECN Full contact details Skip to navigation Search Site only in current section. Advanced Search…. Personal tools Log in. Evidence for policy. Our data. About ECN. Moor House student placement. Wytham student placement. Weather: anticyclones and depressions. Explanatory notes for teachers. Dysgu am y tywydd a newid yn yr hinsawdd. Volunteering with ECN.

Info 3. Distance from the sea Continentality The sea affects the climate of a place. Ocean currents Ocean currents can increase or reduce temperatures. Click the map to see a larger version The Gulf Stream is a warm ocean current in the North Atlantic flowing from the Gulf of Mexico, northeast along the U.

Direction of prevailing winds Winds that blow from the sea often bring rain to the coast and dry weather to inland areas.

The shape of the land 'relief' Climate can be affected by mountains. Human influence The factors above affect the climate naturally. Weather: anticyclones and depressions 3. Climate 3. Click the map to see a larger version.

3.1 Factors affecting climate

The atmosphere has 4 layers: the troposphere that we live in near the surface of the earth; the stratosphere that houses the ozone layer; the mesosphere, a colder and lower density layer with about 0. Why do I care? The structure of the atmosphere dictates the way the atmosphere behaves and controls how weather develops near the surface of the earth. The atmosphere consists of 4 layers: the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere. Figure A shows the placement of the different layers of the atmosphere and how the temperature changes with height as you go from the ground up to space. The troposphere is the lowest layer of the atmosphere.


atmospheric pressure. 3. Air masses-wind and storms: An air mass is a. large body of air with generally uniform temperature. and humidity. Air masses control the.


Structure of the Atmosphere

Chicago lies midway between the Continental Divide and the Atlantic Ocean, and is miles north of the Gulf of Mexico. Chicago's climate is typically continental with cold winters, warm summers, and frequent short fluctuations in temperature, humidity, cloudiness, and wind direction. Many consider the more moderate temperatures of spring and fall to be the most pleasant. Lake Michigan provides a moderating influence on temperature while boosting the amount of snowfall received in the city.

Content Latitude The Earths rotation on its axis No relationship. Pressure Seven surface components that are Precipitation and changes the angle of sunlight at depends on air density and replicated north and south of the moisture content are certain latitudes, therefore temperature. They are intertropical distributed along the changing the temperature at that convergence zone, trade winds, globe.

Elements and Controls of Weather and Climate

By Stanley Changnon.

Illinois State Water Survey - University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Weather is the condition of the atmosphere at a particular place over a short period of time, whereas climate refers to the weather pattern, using statistical data, of a place over a long enough period to yield meaningful averages. Climate is an important element because it indicates the atmospheric condition of heat, moisture and circulation; it plays a dominant role in shaping vegetation and soil; and it ultimately affects all forms of life, as a result of the very definition of the word, which is a scientific prediction, based on evidentiary statistics, sustained over a long period. There are many elements that make up both the weather and the climate of a geographical location.

Although almost anything can happen with the weather, climate is more predictable. Climate then is the long-term average of weather. Good climate is why we choose to vacation in Hawaii in February, even though the weather is not guaranteed to be good! Climate is the average of weather in that location over a long period of time, usually for at least 30 years.


Elements and Controls of Weather and Climate - Free download as Word Doc .​doc /.docx), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or view presentation.


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Skip to content. Skip to navigation. There are many different factors that affect climate around the world. The most important natural factors are:. It is now widely accepted that human activity is also affecting climate, and that the impact is not the same everywhere.

Weather and climate

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  • Atmospheric physics Atmospheric dynamics category. Ilrehydsa - 25.03.2021 at 17:54

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