Planets and their moons list pdf
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- List of moons
- Planets of the Solar System & Other Solar System Objects
- The Solar System
- List of natural satellites
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List of moons
Ever since the Big Bang, the Universe has been drifting and expanding. The birth and death of stars leave an aftermath of galaxies, planets, and even living organisms. Watch the Earth transform from a violent, molten rock to a supporter of life. Discover how astronomers use collective learning to put our planet in its proper place. And learn about Earth's drifting surface that causes earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and continental "surfing.
It was five billion years ago. A giant cloud of matter in our own galaxy, the Milky Way, condensed under its gravity, exploding in nuclear fusion. This fusion released what we call sunshine. Very, very, very hot sunshine. And the newly formed star was our Sun. It drew in most of the surrounding matter, but some escaped. And some of this material clumped together, settling into a protoplanetary orbit.
Those chemically rich leftovers orbiting our young Sun were stewing with all the ingredients to form the planets in our Solar System. These eventually condensed to form the gassy outer giants — Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. The tiny bit of heavier elements that remained made up the rockier Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars. Through a combination of gentle collisions and gravity these atoms and molecules began attracting other like-sized material.
Over millions of years, they gradually shaped themselves into solid planetesimals, and later protoplanets with their own unique orbits. Astronomers call all this smashing and joining together accretion.
After 10 to million years of this banging, eight spherical, stable planets remained. Our Solar System spun into place. Our Sun was born within a dense nebula 4.
Gas and dust contracted into a giant cloud, then floated in one of the spiral arms of the Milky Way. As our Sun aged, it grew larger, brighter, and hotter — eventually causing nuclear fusion in the protons at the centers of its atoms. As they exploded, a tiny bit of matter transformed into a great deal of energy, bursting into sunshine.
The Sun was born. The Sun is currently stable, about halfway through its lifecycle. It's estimated it will live for about another five billion years before consuming all the hydrogen in its core and transforming into a red giant. Our Sun is continually growing. The greater a star's mass, the shorter its lifecycle.
High-mass stars live for one million to tens of millions of years. Low-mass stars, like our Sun, live for tens of millions to trillions of years. When the Sun is about nine billion years old, it will begin to expand rapidly.
Red giants are stars that have exhausted the supply of hydrogen in their cores. Their outer envelope is lower in temperature, giving them a reddish-orange hue. As the red giant burns out, it will collapse into a planetary nebula. The outer layers of gas are ejected and the star's core contracts into a white dwarf.
As the planetary nebula collapses further, the star becomes a white dwarf. Then finally, with all its energy exhausted, it — theoretically — expires into a black dwarf. The possibility of the black dwarf stage has not yet been proven, because not enough time has passed since the Big Bang to create one.
Forces flatten a young solar system and it begins swirling as a protoplanetary disk of gas and dust. The central stellar embryo may still "feed" off the material collapsing around it and continue to grow. For millions of years debris orbits a young star. Chunks of surviving matter not consumed by the voracious stellar embryo collide, combine, and later form planets through accretion.
About 4. Bursts of super-hot plasma on the Sun can sometimes rise to a height more than 30 times the diameter of the Earth. The explosive activity can also generate "solar winds" that may affect the weather on Earth.
Things like its oceans, atmosphere, diverse land features, and moderate temperatures make Earth an oddity in our known Universe. Most mountains on the Earth form as tectonic plates crash together under its surface. Not so for the Moon, where for millions of years asteroids pounded the surface, creating its peaks and valleys. Jupiter is our Solar System's largest planet. Like a star, it's primarily made of hydrogen and helium. But Jupiter never heated up and remains a cold, gassy goliath.
A collage of color shows swirling clouds around Jupiter's Great Red Spot — a persistent, year old, hurricane-like storm. The storm is so large that two or three Earths would fit within it. New elements, combined with the just-right Goldilocks Conditions came together and formed our Solar System.
Though Earth was neatly orbiting the Sun as a rocky mass four and a half billion years ago, no organism could survive there. Radiation from the recent supernova kept the planet extremely hot, its surface molten, and oxygen was non-existent.
Plus, incredibly massive meteorites and asteroids frequently slammed onto the surface — creating even more heat. The Earth got so hot, it began melting.
Heavier material sank to the bottom, lighter stuff rose to the top. Some elements evaporated. This transformation created the Earth's layered core and mantle, crust, and atmosphere. Even today the Earth undergoes constant change. Shifting, sliding, and colliding tectonic plates "surf" atop its semi-molten mantle.
This relentless drifting speeds along at the rate of fingernail growth, yet causes mountains to rise, volcanoes to erupt, and earthquakes to strike. It took billions of years for the Earth to form and settle into orbit around the Sun. But how do we know that? What makes it so? These questions burned and plagued astronomers for millennia. To study the movements of heavens back then, you would look up into the sky. You would see the Sun and stars revolve around the very spot where you were standing, the Earth — just as Ptolemy did some 1, years ago.
This geocentric view, backed by the very powerful religions at the time, endured for more than 1, years until it was toppled by Copernicus and confirmed by Galileo.
Through their observational evidence, and by using the newly invented telescope, they produced data and logic supporting a Sun-centered, heliocentric model of the Solar System. Through these revolutionary findings, geocentrism began to crumble. In the later s, Newton developed his three basic laws of motion and the theory of universal gravity by combining physics, mathematics, and astronomy.
These ideas laid the foundation for our current understanding of the Earth and the cosmos, and helped astronomer Edwin Hubble construct the modern-day Big Bang theory. The geocentric view of the cosmos held by Aristotle and Ptolemy persisted for more than 1, years.
Claudius Ptolemy's theory extended the cosmological theories of Aristotle. Earth was at a center of a series of concentric spheres containing the Moon, the planets, the Sun, and a final sphere of fixed stars.
A Catholic, Polish astronomer, Nicolaus Copernicus, synthesized observational data to formulate a Sun-centered cosmology, launching modern astronomy and setting off a scientific revolution.
Galileo Galilei, an Italian Renaissance man, used a telescope of his own invention to collect evidence that supported the Sun-centered model of the Solar System. By combining physics, mathematics, and astronomy, Newton developed the three basic laws of motion and the theory of universal gravity. By measuring the amount of time between the fluctuating brightness levels of variable stars, Leavitt discovered that it would be possible to estimate their distance away from the Earth, and possible to map the Universe.
Hubble drew upon existing ideas and evidence to demonstrate that the Universe was much larger than previously thought and proved that it is expanding — laying the foundations for the Big Bang theory. Light travels fast. In one second it races around the Earth seven times. Then in a blink of an eye, light reaches the Moon. Going out to the stars, Astronomers know that by studying Cepheid variables, the fluctuation in brightness of certain stars, we can calculate the star's distance from Earth.
The longer the period of fluctuation, the brighter the star. So even though a star might appear extremely dim, if it had a long period it must actually be extremely large. The star appeared dim only because it was extremely far away. By calculating how bright it appeared from Earth and comparing this to its intrinsic brightness, Astronomers could estimate how much of the star's light had been lost while reaching Earth, and how far away the star actually was.
In the scale of the Universe, light would take eight minutes to reach the Sun. And four years to reach Proxima Centauri, the next nearest star. But could light ever cross the entire Universe? Or might it still have a long way to go? Nobody knows for sure. Different elements joining, colliding, breaking apart, and joining again is a very ferocious stage in the life of any planet. Even after the Earth formed, when the atmosphere began to stabilize, it was under siege.
Planets of the Solar System & Other Solar System Objects
Rickman 1 ,2 , T. Gabryszewski 1 , P. Wajer 1 , K. Szutowicz 1 , G. Valsecchi 3 ,4 and A. Morbidelli 5.
The Solar System
How did the Sun, planets and moons in the Solar System form? There is a surprising amount of debate and several strong and competing theories, but do scientists have an answer? Any theory about how the Solar System came to be has to account for certain, rather tricky facts. We know that the Sun sits at the centre of the Solar System with the planets in orbit around it, but these throws up five major problems:. Taking all these issues into account, science has suggested five key theories considered to be 'reasonable' in that they explain many but not all of the phenomena exhibited by the Solar System.
Ever since the Big Bang, the Universe has been drifting and expanding. The birth and death of stars leave an aftermath of galaxies, planets, and even living organisms. Watch the Earth transform from a violent, molten rock to a supporter of life.
List of natural satellites
There are moons , or natural satellites, orbiting the planets in our solar system ; Earth , Mars , Jupiter , Saturn , Uranus , and Neptune have 1, 2, 66, 62, 27, and 13 moons, respectively. The following is a list of some of the major planetary moons, including those of the dwarf planet Pluto. List of moons Article Additional Info. Article Contents. Table Of Contents. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies.