Effects of air pollution on human health and environment pdf
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- Effects of air pollution on human health and practical measures for prevention in Iran
- Health impacts of air pollution
- Environmental and Health Impacts of Air Pollution: A Review
A major study on urban pollution carried out in cities worldwide has confirmed the fear that air pollution impacts on human health in the short term and is directly linked to the deaths of elderly people and those already suffering from illness on a daily basis.
Environment and Health View all 15 Articles. One of our era's greatest scourges is air pollution, on account not only of its impact on climate change but also its impact on public and individual health due to increasing morbidity and mortality. There are many pollutants that are major factors in disease in humans. Among them, Particulate Matter PM , particles of variable but very small diameter, penetrate the respiratory system via inhalation, causing respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, reproductive and central nervous system dysfunctions, and cancer.
Effects of air pollution on human health and practical measures for prevention in Iran
Air pollution is now the biggest environmental risk for early death, responsible for more than 6 million premature deaths each year from heart attacks, strokes, diabetes and respiratory diseases. Children, the elderly, people with existing diseases, and minority and low-income communities are particularly vulnerable to adverse health outcomes and economic impacts, such as missed work days, from exposure to air pollution.
Research suggests that long term exposure to some pollutants increases the risk of emphysema more than smoking a pack of cigarettes a day. And recent studies show air pollution can impact mental health , worker productivity and even stock market performance. What we typically think of as "air pollution" is actually a mixture of small particles, including the below.
Particulate matter PM is made up of small airborne particles like dust, soot and drops of liquids. The majority of PM in urban areas is formed directly from burning of fossil fuels by power plants, automobiles, non-road equipment and industrial facilities. Other sources are dust, diesel emissions and secondary particle formation from gases and vapors. Coarse particulate matter PM 10 , particles less than 10 microns in diameter is known to cause nasal and upper respiratory tract health problems.
Fine particles PM 2. Studies show that higher PM 2. Black carbon is one of the components of particulate matter and comes from burning fuel especially diesel, wood, and coal.
Most air pollution regulations focus on PM 2. Populations with higher exposures to black carbon over a long period are at a higher risk for heart attacks and stroke. In addition, black carbon is associated with hypertension, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bronchitis, and a variety of types of cancer.
Nitrogen oxide NO and nitrogen dioxide NO 2 are produced primarily by the transportation sector. NO is rapidly converted to NO 2 in sunlight. NO x a combination of NO and NO 2 is formed in high concentrations around roadways and can result in development and exacerbations of asthma and bronchitis, and can lead to a higher risk of heart disease. Ozone high in the atmosphere can protect us from ultraviolet radiation.
But ozone at ground level where it is part of what is commonly called smog is a well-established respiratory irritant. Ozone is formed in the atmosphere through reactions of volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides, both of which are formed as a result of combustion of fossil fuels.
Short-term exposure to ozone can cause chest pain, coughing and throat irritation, while long term exposure can lead to decreased lung function and cause chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In addition, ozone exposure can aggravate existing lung diseases. SO 2 is emitted into the air by the burning of fossil fuels that contain sulfur. Coal, metal extraction and smelting, ship engines, and heavy equipment diesel equipment burn fuels that contain sulfur.
Sulfur dioxide causes eye irritation, worsens asthma, increases susceptibility to respiratory infections and impacts the cardiovascular system. When SO 2 combines with water, it forms sulfuric acid; this is the main component of acid rain, a known contributor to deforestation.
Health impacts of air pollution. Around the world, nine out of 10 people breathe unhealthy air. Particulate matter PM 10 , PM 2. Black carbon BC Black carbon is one of the components of particulate matter and comes from burning fuel especially diesel, wood, and coal. Ozone O 3 Ozone high in the atmosphere can protect us from ultraviolet radiation. Sulfur dioxide SO 2 SO 2 is emitted into the air by the burning of fossil fuels that contain sulfur.
Health impacts of air pollution
Metrics details. Traffic-related air pollution TRAP is one of the major sources of exposure in urban areas and has been associated with a wide range of adverse human health effects. The objective of this scoping review is to develop an evidence map of the epidemiological literature of the human health effects of exposure to TRAP, to support future reviews and assessments by Health Canada. DistillerSR will be used to manage the review process. Two reviewers will independently screen the studies in a two-part process title and abstract; full text for eligibility.
Air pollution is a major concern of new civilized world, which has a serious toxicological impact on human health and the environment. It has a number of different emission sources, but motor vehicles and industrial processes contribute the major part of air pollution. According to the World Health Organization, six major air pollutants include particle pollution, ground-level ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and lead. Long and short term exposure to air suspended toxicants has a different toxicological impact on human including respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, neuropsychiatric complications, the eyes irritation, skin diseases, and long-term chronic diseases such as cancer. Several reports have revealed the direct association between exposure to the poor air quality and increasing rate of morbidity and mortality mostly due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases.
It seems that you're in Germany. We have a dedicated site for Germany. This book discusses regional and international climate-change, air- pollution and human-health scenarios. The research, from both industrialized and developing countries, focuses on region-specific perspectives of climate change impacts on air pollution. After analyzing the variations of climate data over recent decades, the authors consider the different effects of climate change on air pollution and health. Deteriorating air quality will most affect the elderly, children, people with chronic ill-health and expectant mothers. Another report suggests that more than 5.
Effects of secondary pollutants on human health became evident from population studies and, in case of ozone, also from controlled human laboratory.
Environmental and Health Impacts of Air Pollution: A Review
One of our era's greatest scourges is air pollution, on account not only of its impact on climate change but also its impact on public and individual health due to increasing morbidity and mortality. There are many pollutants that are major factors in disease in humans. Among them, Particulate Matter PM , particles of variable but very small diameter, penetrate the respiratory system via inhalation, causing respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, reproductive and central nervous system dysfunctions, and cancer. Despite the fact that ozone in the stratosphere plays a protective role against ultraviolet irradiation, it is harmful when in high concentration at ground level, also affecting the respiratory and cardiovascular system. Furthermore, nitrogen oxide, sulfur dioxide, Volatile Organic Compounds VOCs , dioxins, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs are all considered air pollutants that are harmful to humans.
The constant pollution of the air has very negative effects on nature and on human health. Those long-term and medium-term effects have become problems that are difficult to solve. In this article, we are listing the main 10 negative effects that air pollution is causing worldwide:.
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