Toward a theory of task motivation and incentives pdf
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- The Incentive Theory of Motivation
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- The Negative Side of Goal-Setting Theory
The Incentive Theory of Motivation
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What forces are behind your actions? Do you get up and head to the gym each day because you know it's good for you, or is it because of some type of external reward? Sometimes people are motivated to act because of internal desires and wishes, but at other times, behaviors are driven by a desire for external rewards. According to one theory of human motivation, actions are often inspired by a desire to gain outside reinforcement. Incentive theory began to emerge during the s and s, building on the earlier drive theories established by psychologists such as Clark Hull. Rather than focusing on more intrinsic forces behind motivation , the incentive theory proposes that people are pulled toward behaviors that lead to rewards and pushed away from actions that might lead to negative consequences.
SUMMARIZES AND INTEGRATES RESEARCH CONCERNED WITH THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CONSCIOUS GOALS AND INTENTIONS AND TASK.
The Negative Side of Goal-Setting Theory
Edwin A. Locke born May 15, is an American psychologist and a pioneer in goal-setting theory. He was also affiliated with the Department of Psychology. As stated by the Association for Psychological Science , "Locke is the most published organizational psychologist in the history of the field. His pioneering research has advanced and enriched our understanding of work motivation and job satisfaction.
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The present experiment tested the hypothesis that self-regulation of refractory behavior varies as a function of goal proximity. Obese subjects were assigned to conditions in which they either monitored their eating behavior, monitored their eating behavior and set subgoals for reducing the amount of food consumed, or received no treatment. Within the goal-setting conditions, subjects adopted either distal goals defined in terms of weekly goal limits or proximal goals specifying the goal limits for each of four time periods during each day. Goal setting enhanced self-directed change as measured by reductions in both eating behavior and weight. The higher the goal attainments, the greater were the losses in weight.