Perceptive costs of reproduction drive ageing and physiology in male drosophila pdf

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perceptive costs of reproduction drive ageing and physiology in male drosophila pdf

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Cell non-autonomous regulation of health and longevity

Parental investment , in evolutionary biology and evolutionary psychology , is any parental expenditure e. Care can be provided at any stage of the offspring's life, from pre-natal e. Parental investment theory, a term coined by Robert Trivers in , predicts that the sex that invests more in its offspring will be more selective when choosing a mate, and the less-investing sex will have intra-sexual competition for access to mates. This theory has been influential in explaining sex differences in sexual selection and mate preferences , throughout the animal kingdom and in humans. For the first time, evolutionary theory was used to explain why females are "coy" and males are "ardent" and compete with each other for females' attention. In , Ronald Fisher wrote The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection , [4] in which he introduced the modern concept of parental investment, introduced the sexy son hypothesis , and introduced Fisher's principle. In , Angus John Bateman published an influential study of fruit flies in which he concluded that because female gametes are more costly to produce than male gametes, the reproductive success of females was limited by the ability to produce ovum, and the reproductive success of males was limited by access to females.

Cell non-autonomous regulation of health and longevity

Mannitol, a sugar alcohol used in commercial food products, has been previously shown to induce sex-biased mortality in female Drosophila melanogaster when ingested at a single concentration 1 M. We hypothesized that sex differences in energy needs, related to reproductive costs, contributed to the increased mortality we observed in females compared to males. To test this, we compared the longevity of actively mating and non-mating flies fed increasing concentrations of mannitol. Females and males both showed concentration-dependent increases in mortality, but female mortality was consistently higher at concentrations of 0. Additionally, fly longevity decreased further for both sexes when housed in mixed sex vials as compared to single sex vials. This suggests that the increased energetic demands of mating and reproduction for both sexes increased the ingestion of mannitol.

Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Harshman and A. Harshman , A. The cost of reproduction is of fundamental importance in life-history evolution.

Metabolomics data and analyses are provided as Supplementary File 1. All additional data are available upon request from the corresponding author. Costs of reproduction are thought to result from natural selection optimizing organismal fitness within putative physiological constraints. Phenotypic and population genetic studies of reproductive costs are plentiful across taxa, but an understanding of their mechanistic basis would provide important insight into the diversity in life history traits, including reproductive effort and aging. Here we dissect the causes and consequences of specific costs of reproduction in male Drosophila melanogaster. We find that key survival and physiological costs of reproduction arise from perception of the opposite sex, and they are reversed by the act of mating. In the absence of pheromone perception, males are free from reproductive costs on longevity, stress resistance, and fat storage.

The cost of reproduction: the devil in the details.

Ultimately, the outcome of successful reproduction—fertilization of eggs and production of surviving offspring—is relevant for how these processes evolve. However, a thorough understanding of the underlying, proximate mechanism is essential for interpreting evolutionary outcomes properly. Comparing neuroendocrine processes across different species, with different sexual systems, is one way of uncovering similarities and differences in regulation of their reproductive processes. Here, we provide an overview of the neuroendocrine control of reproductive processes in molluscs.

As the demographics of the modern world skew older, understanding and mitigating the effects of aging is increasingly important within biomedical research. Many well-studied pathways that influence aging involve sensory cells, frequently neurons, that signal to peripheral tissues and promote survival during the presence of stress. Importantly, this activation of stress response pathways is often sufficient to improve health and longevity even in the absence of stress. Here, we review the current landscape of research highlighting the importance of cell non-autonomous signaling in modulating aging from C. We also discuss emerging concepts including retrograde signaling, approaches to mapping these networks, and development of potential therapeutics.

Other Links. Weaver1, Humza A. Shaukat2, Marta L. Plumhoff2, Maria Tjilos2 7 , Daniel E.

The cost of reproduction: the devil in the details.

Parental investment

Investment in reproduction is predicted to accelerate ageing, but the link between reproductive investment and lifespan can be sex- and context-specific. In mammals, female reproductive costs are linked to pregnancy and lactation, but in males substantial reproductive allocation is required for a range of pre- and post-copulatory reproductive traits. Such traits include male-specific increased body size, olfactory signalling and territory defence—traits often expressed under androgen-dependent control. In this experimental study, we explored how reproduction influences lifespan in male mice, contrasting this to the established lifespan costs of reproduction in females. Neither castration nor access to females influenced median lifespan in male mice, but maximal lifespan was increased by either castration or reproduction when compared to intact males housed in male groups standard male housing conditions. In females, mating significantly reduced lifespan, and while both sexes had similar lifespans in non-reproductive environments, males had a much longer lifespan when allowed mating. This data highlights the sex-specific nature of social environments and reproduction on lifespan, and the role of these conditions in promoting sexual dimorphism in ageing.

The Inter active Fly Zygotically transcribed genes. The role of cuticular pheromones in courtship conditioning of Drosophila males Courtship conditioning is an associative learning paradigm in Drosophila melanogaster , wherein male courtship behavior is modified by experience with unreceptive, previously mated females. While the training experience with mated females involves multiple sensory and behavioral interactions, it is hypothesized that female cuticular hydrocarbons function as a specific chemosensory conditioned stimulus in this learning paradigm. The effects of training with mated females were determined in courtship tests with either wild-type virgin females as courtship targets, or with target flies of different genotypes that express distinct cuticular hydrocarbon CH profiles.

Citas duplicadas

Повернувшись в полном отчаянии, она ожидала услышать шум смертельной борьбы на полу, но все было тихо. Все вдруг сразу же смолкло: как если бы Хейл, сбив коммандера с ног, снова растворился в темноте. Сьюзан ждала, вглядываясь во тьму и надеясь, что Стратмор если и пострадал, то не сильно. После паузы, показавшейся ей вечностью, она прошептала: - Коммандер. И в тот же миг осознала свою ошибку. Она ощутила запах Хейла, но повернулась слишком поздно.

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