Pdf metabolism and mechanisms of action of hyaluronan in human biology

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Hyaluronan is a matrix polymer prominent in tissues undergoing rapid growth, development, and repair, in embryology and during malignant progression. It reaches 10 7 Daltons in size but also exists in fragmented forms with size-specific actions. It has intracellular forms whose functions are less well known. Hyaluronan provides a scaffold on which sulfated proteoglycans and matrix proteins are organized.

Chain Gangs: New Aspects of Hyaluronan Metabolism

It is unique among glycosaminoglycans as it is non-sulfated, forms in the plasma membrane instead of the Golgi apparatus , and can be very large: human synovial HA averages about 7 million Da per molecule, or about 20, disaccharide monomers, [4] while other sources mention 3—4 million Da. As one of the chief components of the extracellular matrix , it contributes significantly to cell proliferation and migration , and also [ vague ] may be involved in the progression of some malignant tumors. Until the late s, hyaluronic acid was described as a " goo " molecule, a ubiquitous carbohydrate polymer that is part of the extracellular matrix. Along with lubricin , it is one of the fluid's main lubricating components. Hyaluronic acid is an important component of articular cartilage , where it is present as a coat around each cell chondrocyte. When aggrecan monomers bind to hyaluronan in the presence of HAPLN1 hyaluronanic acid and proteoglycan link protein 1 , large, highly negatively charged aggregates form. These aggregates imbibe water and are responsible for the resilience of cartilage its resistance to compression.

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Hyaluronic Acid: Molecular Mechanisms and Therapeutic Trajectory

Skin aging is a multifactorial process consisting of two distinct and independent mechanisms: intrinsic and extrinsic aging. Youthful skin retains its turgor, resilience and pliability, among others, due to its high content of water. Daily external injury, in addition to the normal process of aging, causes loss of moisture. The key molecule involved in skin moisture is hyaluronic acid HA that has unique capacity in retaining water. There are multiple sites for the control of HA synthesis, deposition, cell and protein association and degradation, reflecting the complexity of HA metabolism.

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Hyaluronan and the Process of Aging in Skin

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Hyaluronic acid: A key molecule in skin aging

Hyaluronic acid

Robert Stern, Devising a pathway for hyaluronan catabolism: are we there yet? Hyaluronan is a negatively charged, high molecular weight glycosaminoglycan found predominantly in the extracellular matrix. Intracellular locations for hyaluronan have also been documented in cytoplasm, nucleus, and nucleolus. The polymer has an extraordinarily high rate of turnover in vertebrate tissues. The focus here is to formulate a metabolic pathway for hyaluronan degradation using all available data, including the recently acquired information on the hyaluronidase gene family. Such a catabolic scheme has defied explication up to now.

Hyaluronic acid also known as hyaluronan or hyaluronate is naturally found in many tissues and fluids, but more abundantly in articular cartilage and synovial fluid SF. Hyaluronic acid HA content varies widely in different joints and species. HA is a non-sulfated, naturally occurring non-protein glycosaminoglycan GAG , with distinct physico-chemical properties, produced by synoviocytes, fibroblasts, and chondrocytes. HA has an important role in the biomechanics of normal SF, where it is partially responsible for lubrication and viscoelasticity of the SF. For that reason, HA has been used for more than four decades in the treatment of OA in dogs, horses and humans. HA produces anti-arthritic effects via multiple mechanisms involving receptors, enzymes and other metabolic pathways. HA is also used in the treatment of ophthalmic, dermal, burns, wound repair, and other health conditions.

Textbook of Aging Skin pp Cite as. Hyaluronan is a major component of the extracellular matrix of skin and important in the metabolism of both epidermis and dermis. Hyaluronan is responsible for hydration, nutrient exchange, and protects against free radical damage via a multitude of signaling pathways. It is also involved in basic biological processes such as cell renewal, differentiation, and motility. An overview is provided here that provides recent information, bringing up-to-date advances in hyaluronan and matrix biology with a particular emphasis on the process of aging in human skin.

Metabolism and mechanisms of action of hyaluronan in human biology

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COMMENT 1

  • Importance of hyaluronan biosynthesis and degradation in cell differentiation and tumor formation. Justin C. - 19.03.2021 at 21:41

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