Henri maspero taoism and chinese religion pdf
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Chinese Buddhism or Han Buddhism has shaped Chinese culture in a wide variety of areas including art, politics, literature , philosophy , medicine and material culture.
The translation of a large body of Indian Buddhist scriptures into Chinese and the inclusion of these translations together with Taoist and Confucian works composed in China into a printed canon had far-reaching implications for the dissemination of Buddhism throughout the East Asian cultural sphere , including Taiwan , Korea , Japan and Vietnam.
Chinese Buddhism is also marked by the interaction between Indian and Chinese folk religion. Various legends tell of the presence of Buddhism in Chinese soil in very ancient times.
While the scholarly consensus is that Buddhism first came to China in the first century CE during the Han dynasty , through missionaries from India ,  it actually is not known precisely when Buddhism entered China. Generations of scholars have debated whether Buddhist missionaries first reached Han China via the maritime or overland routes of the Silk Road.
On the other hand, it must have entered from the northwest via the Kansu corridor to the Yellow River basin and the North China Plain in the course of the first century CE.
The scene becomes clearer from the middle of the second century onward, when the first known missionaries started their translation activities in the capital, Luoyang. The view that Buddhism was transmitted to China by the sea route comparatively lacks convincing and supporting materials, and some arguments are not sufficiently rigorous.
Based on the existing historical texts and the archaeological iconographic materials discovered since the s, particularly the first-century Buddhist manuscripts recently found in Afghanistan, the commentator believes that the most plausible theory is that Buddhism reached China from the Greater Yuezhi of northwest India and took the land route to reach Han China. After entering into China, Buddhism blended with early Daoism and Chinese traditional esoteric arts and its iconography received blind worship.
The French sinologist Henri Maspero says it is a "very curious fact" that, throughout the entire Han dynasty, Daoism and Buddhism were "constantly confused and appeared as single religion".
Hundreds and thousands of recipes are there for longevity through abstention from cereals. I practised them, but without success; I saw them put to use, but without result. That is why I abandoned them. Early Chinese Buddhism was conflated and mixed with Daoism, and it was within Daoist circles that it found its first adepts. Traces are evident in Han period Chinese translations of Buddhist scriptures, which hardly differentiated between Buddhist nirvana and Daoist immortality. A number of popular accounts in historical Chinese literature have led to the popularity of certain legends regarding the introduction of Buddhism into China.
The early 3rd to early 5th century Mouzi Lihuolun first records this legend:. In olden days Emperor Ming saw in a dream a god whose body had the brilliance of the sun and who flew before his palace; and he rejoiced exceedingly at this. The next day he asked his officials: "What god is this? The emperor then sent an envoy to Tianzhu Southern India to inquire about the teachings of the Buddha.
The first documented translation of Buddhist scriptures from various Indian languages into Chinese occurs in CE with the arrival of the Parthian prince-turned-monk An Shigao Ch. He worked to establish Buddhist temples in Luoyang and organized the translation of Buddhist scriptures into Chinese, testifying to the beginning of a wave of Central Asian Buddhist proselytism that was to last several centuries.
An Shigao translated Buddhist texts on basic doctrines, meditation , and abhidharma. An Xuan Ch. This corpus of texts often includes emphasizes ascetic practices and forest dwelling, and absorption in states of meditative concentration: . The Dharmaguptakas made more efforts than any other sect to spread Buddhism outside India, to areas such as Afghanistan , Central Asia , and China, and they had great success in doing so.
According to A. Warder , in some ways in those East Asian countries, the Dharmaguptaka sect can be considered to have survived to the present. It was the Dharmaguptakas who were the first Buddhists to establish themselves in Central Asia. After establishing themselves as far west as Parthia they followed the "silk route", the east-west axis of Asia, eastwards across Central Asia and on into China, where they effectively established Buddhism in the second and third centuries A.
Initially, Buddhism in China faced a number of difficulties in becoming established. The concept of monasticism and the aversion to social affairs seemed to contradict the long-established norms and standards established in Chinese society. Some even declared that Buddhism was harmful to the authority of the state, that Buddhist monasteries contributed nothing to the economic prosperity of China, that Buddhism was barbaric and undeserving of Chinese cultural traditions.
Buddhism appealed to Chinese intellectuals and elites and the development of gentry Buddhism was sought as an alternative to Confucianism and Daoism, since Buddhism's emphasis on morality and ritual appealed to Confucianists and the desire to cultivate inner wisdom appealed to Daoists. Gentry Buddhism was a medium of introduction for the beginning of Buddhism in China, it gained imperial and courtly support.
By the early 5th century Buddhism was established in south China. When he was released in AD , he immediately took a high place in Chinese Buddhism and was appraised as a great master from the West.
He was especially valued by Emperor Yao Xing of the state of Later Qin , who gave him an honorific title and treated him like a god. Due to the wide proliferation of Buddhist texts available in Chinese and the large number of foreign monks who came to teach Buddhism in China, much like new branches growing from a main tree trunk, various specific focus traditions emerged.
Other early traditions were the Tiantai , Huayan and the Vinaya school. The Tiantai founder Zhiyi wrote several works that became important and widely read meditation manuals in China such as the "Concise samatha-vipasyana", and the " Great samatha-vipasyana.
An important aspect of a nun was the practice of a vegetarian as it was heavily emphasized in the Buddhist religion to not harm any living creature for the purpose of them to consume. There were also some nuns who did not eat regularly, as an attempt of fasting. Some daily activities of nuns include the reading, memorizing, and reciting of Buddhist scriptures and religious text. The Zen teaching was a separate transmission outside the scriptural teachings that did not posit any written texts as sacred.
Zen pointed directly to the human mind to enable people to see their real nature and become buddhas. During the early Tang dynasty , between and , the monk Xuanzang journeyed to India and visited over one hundred kingdoms, and wrote extensive and detailed reports of his findings, which have subsequently become important for the study of India during this period.
When he returned, he brought with him some Sanskrit texts. Xuanzang also returned with relics, statues, and Buddhist paraphernalia loaded onto twenty-two horses. He is credited with the translation of some 1, fascicles of scriptures into Chinese. The force of his own study, translation and commentary of the texts of these traditions initiated the development of the Faxiang school in East Asia. Although the school itself did not thrive for a long time, its theories regarding perception , consciousness , karma , rebirth , etc.
Xuanzang's closest and most eminent student was Kuiji who became recognized as the first patriarch of the Faxiang school.
Xuanzang's logic, as described by Kuiji, was often misunderstood by scholars of Chinese Buddhism because they lack the necessary background in Indian logic. The proliferation of these texts expanded the Chinese Buddhist canon significantly with high quality translations of some of the most important Indian Buddhist texts.
The popularization of Buddhism in this period is evident in the many scripture-filled caves and structures surviving from this period. The Leshan Giant Buddha , carved out of a hillside in the 8th century during the Tang dynasty and looking down on the confluence of three rivers, is still the largest stone Buddha statue in the world. At the Longmen cave complex, Wu Zetian r.
Monks and pious laymen spread Buddhist concepts through story-telling and preaching from sutra texts. These oral presentations were written down as bianwen transformation stories which influenced the writing of fiction by their new ways of telling stories combining prose and poetry.
Popular legends in this style included Mulian Rescues His Mother , in which a monk descends into hell in a show of filial piety. Making duplications of Buddhist texts was considered to bring meritorious karma.
Printing from individually carved wooden blocks and from clay or metal movable type proved much more efficient than hand copying and eventually eclipsed it.
Daxing Shansi was established in the ancient capital Chang'an, today's Xi'an, and became one of the four great centers of scripture translation supported by the imperial court. They had translated many Buddhist scriptures, sutra and tantra, from Sanskrit to Chinese.
They had also assimilated the prevailing teachings of China: Daoism and Confucianism, with Buddhism, and had further evolved the practice of the Esoteric school. They brought to the Chinese a mysterious, dynamic, and magical teaching, which included mantra formula and detailed rituals to protect a person or an empire, to affect a person's fate after death, and, particularly popular, to bring rain in times of drought. It is not surprising, then, that all three masters were well received by the emperor Tang Xuanzong, and their teachings were quickly taken up at the Tang court and among the elite.
Mantrayana altars were installed in temples in the capital, and by the time of emperor Tang Daizong r. However, relations between Amoghavajra and Daizong were especially good. In life the emperor favored Amoghavajra with titles and gifts, and when the master died in , he honored his memory with a stupa, or funeral monument. Master Huiguo , the last known disciple of Amoghavajra, foresaw this.
Huiguo died shortly after his meeting with Kukai and not long before Emperor Wuzong's persecution. There were several components that led to opposition of Buddhism.
One factor is the foreign origins of Buddhism, unlike Taoism and Confucianism. Han Yu wrote, "Buddha was a man of the barbarians who did not speak the language of China and wore clothes of a different fashion.
His sayings did not concern the ways of our ancient kings, nor did his manner of dress conform to their laws. He understood neither the duties that bind sovereign and subject, nor the affections of father and son. Other components included the Buddhists' withdrawal from society, since the Chinese believed that Chinese people should be involved with family life.
Wealth, tax-exemption status and power of the Buddhist temples and monasteries also annoyed many critics. As mentioned earlier, persecution came during the reign of Emperor Wuzong in the Tang dynasty.
Wuzong was said to hate the sight of Buddhist monks, who he thought were tax-evaders. In , he ordered the destruction of 4, Buddhist monasteries and 40, temples. More than , Buddhist monks and nuns then became peasants liable to the Two Taxes grain and cloth. David Graeber argues that Buddhist institutions had accumulated so much precious metals which the government needed to secure the money supply.
During this period, five dynasties quickly succeeded one another in the north, and more than 12 independent states were established, mainly in the south. However, only ten are traditionally listed, hence the era's name, "Ten Kingdoms".
This era also led to the founding of the Liao dynasty. After the fall of the Tang dynasty , China was without effective central control during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. China was divided into several autonomous regions. Support for Buddhism was limited to a few areas. The Hua-yen and T'ien-t'ai schools suffered from the changing circumstances, since they had depended on imperial support.
The collapse of T'ang society also deprived the aristocratic classes of wealth and influence, which meant a further drawback for Buddhism. During this time, the Song court retreated south of the Yangtze River and established their capital at Lin'an now Hangzhou.
Although the Song Dynasty had lost control of the traditional birthplace of Chinese civilization along the Yellow River , the Song economy was not in ruins, as the Southern Song Empire contained 60 percent of China's population and a majority of the most productive agricultural land. During the Song dynasty, in CE, it is recorded that there were , Buddhist monks and nuns actively living in monasteries. During the Mongol Yuan domination, the Mongol emperors made Esoteric Buddhism an official religion of their empire which China was a part of, and Tibetan lamas were given patronage at the court.
Taoism and Chinese Religion
Chinese Buddhism or Han Buddhism has shaped Chinese culture in a wide variety of areas including art, politics, literature , philosophy , medicine and material culture. The translation of a large body of Indian Buddhist scriptures into Chinese and the inclusion of these translations together with Taoist and Confucian works composed in China into a printed canon had far-reaching implications for the dissemination of Buddhism throughout the East Asian cultural sphere , including Taiwan , Korea , Japan and Vietnam. Chinese Buddhism is also marked by the interaction between Indian and Chinese folk religion. Various legends tell of the presence of Buddhism in Chinese soil in very ancient times. While the scholarly consensus is that Buddhism first came to China in the first century CE during the Han dynasty , through missionaries from India ,  it actually is not known precisely when Buddhism entered China. Generations of scholars have debated whether Buddhist missionaries first reached Han China via the maritime or overland routes of the Silk Road.
Seidel Anna. Chronicle of Taoist Studies in the West History of the Taoist Canon. Sources other than the Taoist Canon. Taoist History After the T'ang. The Immortals and their Mythology.
It has become a sinological dogma to distinguish between the so-called Taoist school Daojia , said to have produced the classical mystical texts …, and the so-called Taoist religion Daojiao , often said to have begun in the Later Han period [i. The successive Daozang [Daoist Canons] never made this distinction. When we look at the way the terms Daojia and Daojiao occur in the texts preserved in the Ming Canon [published in ], we see that they are practically synonymous and interchangeable. There could be no better introduction to the present article than the passage quoted above from one of the main Western scholarly works on Daoism or Taoism , even though it calls into question not only the relevance of this article, but also the actual existence of its subject. Omitting these views would be something like writing a survey of Christianity that intentionally neglects to consider the thought and works of the theologians. Daoism is a tradition as complex and heterogeneous as Buddhism, Islam, Judaism, or Christianity. Yet, the use of these categories can also lead an observer to look only at the aspects of the tradition that fit the chosen framework, and only within the terms of that framework.
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Translations chronologically. Secondary Works. Xuan-xue "Neo-Daoism" :. Daoist Religion:. Nature and Environment :. Daoism and Art:. Those on the left publish more articles on Daoism and Chinese religions than those on the right.
China officially espouses state atheism ,  but in reality most of Chinese citizens including Communist Party members practice some kind of Chinese folk religion, especially Confucianism. Chinese civilization has historically long been a cradle and host to a variety of the most enduring religio - philosophical traditions of the world. Confucianism and Taoism Daoism , later joined by Buddhism , constitute the " three teachings " that have shaped Chinese culture. There are no clear boundaries between these intertwined religious systems, which do not claim to be exclusive, and elements of each enrich popular or folk religion. The emperors of China claimed the Mandate of Heaven and participated in Chinese religious practices. In the early 20th century, reform-minded officials and intellectuals attacked all religions as "superstitious", and since , China has been governed by the Communist Party of China , an atheist institution that prohibits party members from practicing religion while in office. In the culmination of a series of atheistic and anti-religious campaigns already underway since the late 19th century, the Cultural Revolution against old habits, ideas, customs and culture , lasting from to , destroyed or forced them underground.
Затем раздался крик: - Нужно немедленно вызвать Джаббу. Послышались другие звуки, похожие на шум борьбы. ГЛАВА 55 - Ты уселся на мое место, осел. Беккер с трудом приподнял голову. Неужели в этой Богом проклятой стране кто-то говорит по-английски. На него сверху вниз смотрел прыщавый бритоголовый коротышка. Половина головы красная, половина - синяя.
Так почему он не отключит эту свою игрушку. Вдруг это вирус.