Mathematics teaching methods and techniques pdf

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mathematics teaching methods and techniques pdf

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The building blocks of mathematics start early on, when learning the basic skills. The key to teaching basic math skills that students can apply and remember for future instruction is to use several teaching strategies. A simple strategy teachers can use to improve math skills is repetition. By repeating and reviewing previous formulas, lessons, and information, students are better able to comprehend concepts at a faster rate. According to Professor W.

Notes on Techniques of Mathematics Teaching

To browse Academia. Skip to main content. By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. To learn more, view our Privacy Policy. Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Selva Raj. Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. The problem of low mathematical skills is caused by many reasons such as unsuitable teaching and learning environment, few teaching methods, negative attitude of pupils and parents towards mathematics, shortage of teaching and learning materials, negative interaction between teachers and pupils to mention few.

Studies show that, pupils who experience learning difficulties may not be intellectually impaired; rather their learning problems may be the result of an inadequate design of instruction in curricular materials Mathematics learning difficulties in primary education, This study used a qualitative approach which adopts a case study design.

Also, the study adopted purposive sampling whereby four primary schools were selected and four teachers who teach mathematics in grade three from each school were the sample. Data were collected through observation and interview in which unstructured interview with open —ended questions were asked.

The analysis and interpretation of results was guided by the perspectives derived from three theories which are Vygotsky Cognitive Development Theory, Bronfernbrenner Ecological System Theory, Constructivism Theory and other studies from different literatures.

The study shows two major findings: First, There were a large number of pupils in the classroom which caused teachers to fail to use different teaching methods. Second, There was a shortage of teaching and learning materials especially textbooks for both teachers and pupils.

Two main recommendations of the findings are presented. Firstly, the findings point to the need to reduce the class size so as to enable teachers to accommodate every pupil in the mathematical classrooms. Secondly, there is a need to dedicate more teaching and learning text books for both teachers and pupils.

In line with this thanks should go to the Royal Norwegian Government to allow me to come in Norway and study at the University of Oslo. Also, special thanks should go to the Norwegian State Education Loan Fund who offered me a quota scheme scholarship. Without them I could not manage to study due to the lack of money and expense of life in Norway. In line with this I thank all teachers and administrators who work at Special Needs Education for their good facilitation and guidance during my study.

I am further grateful to my first supervisor Lage, Jonsborg. His tireless effort of passing through my work, encouragement, support and co operation from the first day he signed a supervision contract up to the end of the work, made it possible for me to accomplish this work on time. Also thanks should go to my second supervisor Jorun, Buli-Holmberg for guiding me wherever I needed her support.

Without them I myself I could not manage to organize and make clear this study. Salum Ramadhan Mnjagila for his encouragement and support to pursue this study. Also I thank my respondents mathematical teachers who teach grade three at those four primary schools for their nice cooperation and involvement in the work of this research. Without them, this work could not be successfully. Last but not least, special thanks should go to my lovely husband Rainer Rainer Chale for his moral and material support from the application process of this study up to end.

I also thank Rainer for his patience since I travelled between Tanzania and Norway in pursuit this course for two years. You missed my company for that long as your lovely wife but I trusted that you always manage life with Almighty God. Special thanks should go to my lovely mother Roza Deo Bamira for her good care, moral support and counseling towards my study from primary school up to University.

VI Acknowledgement VII Dedication IX List of Abbreviations XIV List of tables XV List of Figures XVI 1 Introduction It is a case study in which four teachers each from four primary schools who teach mathematics in grade three were investigated. My personal goals and experiences as a teacher and an education administrator at the national level is part of my motivation to explore teaching methods used to help children with low mathematical skills. The touchstone of your own experience may be a more valuable indicator of a potentially successful research endeavor Maxwell, Tanzania is one of the countries which lag behind in performance in mathematics as a subject from primary level up to higher learning institutions.

Despite the fact that the government effort of putting a budget for capacity building for mathematics teachers, purchasing teaching resources, different books other teaching materials and equipment, the number of learners with low mathematical skills in primary schools is believed to be increasing day after day.

There are twelve components of mathematical skills, these are: problem solving, communicating mathematical ideas, mathematical reasoning, apply mathematics to every day situation, alertness to the reasonableness of results, estimation, appropriate computational skills, algebraic thinking, measurement, geometry, statistics and probability Chinn, Pupils with low mathematical skills have deficit of some of the skills mentioned above by the ibid. Also, Reisman argues that pupils with low mathematical skills are those underachieving in mathematics subject.

Pupils in primary schools normally perform better in other subjects except in mathematics Kitta, Hence, different Tanzanian scholars have come to pinpoint mathematics as a national problem that leads failure for many pupils ibid.

This study considers the problem of low mathematical skills within an inclusive education paradigm, investigating the teaching methods used by the teachers in the primary schools to meet the needs of pupils with low mathematical skills in Tanzania.

Parents and siblings teach young children simple arithmetic according to the things they have within their environment. Children are taught to count animals and the sacks of crops and to count the money, especially coins. When they go to school they have a little knowledge of additions and subtractions. From grade one up to grade two most primary pupils in Tanzania normally perform well in mathematics subject.

When they start grade three, things start to change slowly and the number of pupils with low mathematical skills emerge in this grade and following grades. Moreover, a seminar organized for mathematics teachers by The Mathematical Association of Tanzania MAT in identified the major causes of low mathematical skills among pupils as emanating from pupils, teachers and the community including parents, while others attributed the problem to lazy pupils Why are students performing poorly in mathematics, This problem of low mathematical skills among many primary pupils is what motivated the investigator to investigate the cause of this existing problem in Tanzania.

From this experience it might be possible that most teachers change methods and strategies when they start teaching mathematics at grade three. This could be the result of changes in the curriculum in which children are exposed to place values of numbers increasing from hundreds to thousands.

The formal education and training covers 2 years of pre-primary, and 7 years of primary education. Then 6 years of secondary education that consists of 4 years of ordinary level and 2 years of advanced secondary school education, certificate and diploma in teacher education, and other vocational training programs.

Initially, inclusive education mainly focused on mainstreaming learners with special needs into normal classroom. Many writers have defined inclusive education as a type of education that recognizes and appropriately supports students with a wide range of abilities and disabilities in the general education classroom Salend, Therefore, inclusive education advocates for the type of education that integrates children with special needs, both gifted and talented, and those with learning disabilities with their peers within the mainstream classrooms Lloyd, The concept of inclusive education is based on philosophical position that all learners, regardless of the type and level of disabilities and different background should be educated in the same general education classroom as their same age peers Crawford, In enforcing rights to education, Tanzania has signed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights that also emphasis rights to education to all citizens and basic education is seen as a basic right and compulsory for all.

The TEMP envisages developing teachers so that they are competent and able to meet the diverse learner needs. This study considers low mathematical skills within an inclusive education paradigm. It also investigates the teaching methods which teachers use in the primary schools for pupils with low mathematical skills in Tanzania.

It includes the role of intuition, fluidity of mathematical conceptualization, open-endedness, and nature of proof, use of logic and questioning within mathematical contexts Underhill et al. The importance of mathematical skills includes among others, is to enable an individual to cope with their daily life ibid. However, the solution of mathematical problem cannot begin until the problem has been translated into the appropriate mathematical terms.

This first and essential step presents very great difficulties to many pupils — a fact which is often too little appreciated p. Also, basic skills of mathematics help an individual to be an independent person who can take care of himself or herself. In line with this, Naggar-Smith lists some important basic skills of mathematics in our daily life. These include: to pay for purchase and to give change, to weigh and to measure, to estimate and approximate and to understand strait forward timetables.

In this sense, if one fails to grasp the simple basics of mathematics, that person may face difficulties in the above realities ibid. However, despite these efforts, students' poor performance and low mathematical skills has long been a subject of discussion among parents, teachers, educators, political leaders and students, themselves ibid. In line with Kita, Poyo argue that there is a problem of low mathematical skills among the primary school pupils.

This study investigated the teaching methods which teachers use in teaching pupils with low mathematical skills in Tanzania with a focus on Arusha District Council. The specific objectives of this study are: i. To explore the teaching methods which teachers use in teaching mathematics to pupils with low mathematical skills ii.

To explore the kind of instructions which teachers use in teaching mathematics to pupils with low mathematical skills iii. To explore the kind of activities do teachers give the pupils with low mathematical skills. To find out the kind of teaching materials do teachers use in teaching pupils with low mathematical skills.

Main question How are the teaching conditions and the use of teaching methods for teachers teaching mathematics to pupils with low mathematical skills in the inclusive classrooms? Sub questions i.

What kind of instructions do teachers use when teaching mathematics to pupils with low mathematical skills? What kind of activities do teachers give to pupils with low mathematical skills? What kind of teaching materials do teachers use in teaching pupils with low mathematical skills? It took two weeks to get permission from the authorities.

In line with this, all primary school were closed for holiday for one month and the National census was conducted for one week. The teaching methods for pupils with low mathematical skills in the grade three are the focus of the study. The study was planned to be finalized in six months though due to the delay of the permission obtained from education authorities, closure of the schools and the National census the study was done for three months.

Gives insight to policy makers, curriculum developers and other educational stakeholders at various levels of educational administrations and teachers taking measures to overcome the existing problems of low mathematical skills for primary school pupils in Tanzania. Adds to the knowledge we have about the current teaching methods in mathematics for Tanzanian primary schools.

Indicates strategies and intervention to explore and overcome the challenges in teaching pupils with low mathematical skills.


Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. In the previous chapter, we examined teaching for mathematical proficiency. We now turn our attention to what it takes to develop proficiency in teaching mathematics. Proficiency in teaching is related to effectiveness: consistently helping students learn worthwhile mathematical content. Proficiency also entails versatility: being able to work effectively with a wide variety of students in different environments and across a range of mathematical content.

Keywords Teaching Techniques, Teaching Methods,. Mathematics, Reasons. 1. in other disciplines deeply affect the teaching-learning process in mathematics. [3]. Retrieved from

Mathematics education

Mathematics resources - www. Become a memberJoin the Canadian Mathematical Society and receive many benefits such as free online access to our research journals, savings on registration to events and publications, and more. Read more Canadian Our authors have unrivalled expertise in writing examples and problems to prepare students for exams, as well as proven experience interpreting the Australian Curriculum and VCE Study Designs for VCE students. Qualitative research methods were employed, primarily case studies.

Resources to support teaching and learning across all areas of mathematics. Mathematics and numeracy assessment tools and resources to help educators identify where students are in their learning along a developmental continuum. Multimodal resources to support planning, teaching and assessment in mathematics.

Great teachers are always remembered and cherished by students. A great teacher is a selfless person who aims for clear learning outcomes. They set high expectations for all students and have clear chalked-out objectives. Today, we can connect to any corner of the world with a single click. Communicating with people has become smart and cheap.

Mathematics Teaching Toolkit

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Show all documents During the study for students studying in the field of education " Methods of teaching mathematics " developed the same manual. Keywords: mathematics , teaching methods , class design, practice elements, case studies, problem-based learning. It means that they sometimes preferred this technique while teaching mathematics because this technique was thought to be consistent with the inevitable in Mathematics , helping to generalize, simplify and discipline learning but three contrary ideas emphasized that putting rule was not a contemporary approach in learning. The mean score is comparatively low since this model is teacher-centered and frequently entails lengthy lecture sessions or one-way presentations. Students are expected to take notes or absorb information. This could be acceptable for certain higher-education disciplines and auditorium settings with large groups of students.

Associated Professor at Mathematics and Math Teaching Methods. Faculty of learning where and how some mathematical technique could be used is more important than


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