Quantification of antimicrobial usage in dairy cows and preweaned calves in argentina pdf
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- Quantification of antimicrobial usage in dairy cows and preweaned calves in Argentina.
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- First Case Report on Quantification of Antimicrobial Use in Corporate Dairy Farms in Pakistan
Microbial communities associated with herbivores are fundamental to ecosystem functioning in almost all environments on Earth.
J Food Prot 1 September ; 82 9 : — The presence of antimicrobial and pesticide residues in products sourced from peasant family farms selected from eight regions of Chile was determined. A total of samples were analyzed from family farm products, including honey, lettuce, tomato, strawberry, raspberry, lamb meat, and cow's milk. Pesticide residues were found in 43 of samples tested for them, but only 4 samples had concentrations that exceeded the maximum residue limits MRLs set by Chilean regulations.
Quantification of antimicrobial usage in dairy cows and preweaned calves in Argentina.
Intensive livestock farming has become indispensable to meet the rapidly increasing demand for animal-based nutrition in low- and middle-income countries LMICs where antimicrobials are frequently used for treatment and prophylactic or metaphylactic purposes. The objective of this study was to quantify AMU in two large commercial dairy farms in Pakistan.
A retrospective study was conducted at two large corporate commercial dairy farms located in Punjab province for the year Total on-farm AMU was found to be Measured in ATI, aminoglycosides A total of Considerably high AMU was found compared to other farm-level studies across the world.
This was the first study to quantify AMU in the dairy industry in Pakistan. Our results showed that corporate commercial dairy management practices are associated with increased antimicrobial consumption and highlight the need for antimicrobial stewardship programs to encourage prudent use of antimicrobials in commercial dairy. Antimicrobial resistance AMR has been considered a global health problem, and the situation is worse in low- and middle-income countries LMICs due to lack of responsible antimicrobial use AMU and inadequate antimicrobial stewardship 1.
Owing to the increasing demand of animal protein, antimicrobials are extensively used in food animals for treatment and prophylactic reasons 2 , 3. Global data highlighted that the overall consumption of antimicrobials in food animals far exceeds consumption in human medicine because of larger biomass and non-therapeutic AMU in food animals 4 — 6. It has been suggested that the overall burden of AMR has increased due to the contribution of AMU from food animals 7.
In efforts to meet the ever-increasing animal protein demand in LMICs, a shift towards intensive livestock farming has resulted in irrational AMU 3 , 8. However, data on AMU in LMICs are often not available due to weak regulatory infrastructure, over-the-counter sale of antimicrobials, and inappropriate prescription practices 9. The dairy sector in Pakistan plays a significant role in its agriculture-based economy.
Pakistan is one of the world's top milk producers, with an estimate of The majority of dairy milk is produced from small dairy holders one to four animals throughout the country; however, due to the increasing demand of milk intensive and semi-intensive dairy farming is becoming increasingly popular 13 , Livestock in Pakistan contributes to The livestock wing under the Ministry of National Food Security and Research has taken several measures for the growth of the dairy sector in terms of improving per-unit productivity by allowing the import of high-yielding exotic dairy breeds Holstein-Friesian and Jersey , their genetic material embryos and semen , feedstuff, and farm equipment at low import duties.
Dairy production in Pakistan can be classified into five major systems, i. Currently, only 15 such large corporate farms are operating in the country 14 , Therefore, this study is designed to quantify AMU on a convenience sample of two large corporate commercial dairy farms for 1 year to provide the first baseline study on AMU at the farm-level in Pakistan. To evaluate quantitative AMU, a retrospective study was conducted in two large corporate commercial dairy farms located in Punjab province for the year Both farms were automated semi-controlled and had maintained exotic cattle Holstein-Friesian with a total animal count of 5,, consisting of 2, milking cows, 1, heifers, and 1, calves, taken as average for the year Table 1.
As a standard commercial operation, inventory records were maintained at both farms. Table 1. Adjusted animal number ANadj as per the weights of dairy cattle defined by Jensen et al. Drug inventory output records drugs issued from inventory intended to be used at animals kept on the farm from January 1st to December 31st for the year were accessed after signing an agreement permitting drug inventory data access and ensuring farm anonymity and secrecy in any form of publication.
For the detailed product composition and dosage information, market, and respective product websites were visited. Data were maintained in columns as product name, active ingredients AIs , concentration, and labeled dosage. Calculations were made for each AI, categorized regarding its class and the labeled treatment route using Microsoft Office Excel Metrics 1 and 3 quantify the amount of AI used, whereas metric 2 estimates the number of treatments per day over 1, cows.
The total amount of AI in milligrams mg for each product is determined using the labeled concentration and quantity used. For products comprising more than one AI, mg were calculated separately for each ingredient. For each antimicrobial, AI values were then added up and expressed in kilograms kg.
For long-acting compositions, DDDA was calculated as per-day average according to the labeled duration of action For intramammary compositions, one intramammary tube was considered as one DDDA 21 , As the drug inventory records at both farms were maintained for the entire on-farm herd population, the total animal biomass is adjusted against the weight of one dairy cow 23 , and the total number of animals was calculated to be 3, termed as adjusted animal number ANadj Table 1 Equation 4.
Individual ATIs were then added up for each antimicrobial and drug class with respect to the labeled route of treatment. Treatment fraction TF is a decimal ratio between the actual numbers of treatments and the maximum possible number of treatments within the days of study, i.
TF when multiplied by 1, cow-days gives the number of treatments using DDDA per thousand cows in 1 day, i. Population unit PU is defined as the composite weight Wc in kg of all the animals in the study.
PU was considered constant throughout the study period. A total of 42 antimicrobial products parenteral, intramammary, and intrauterine were used, containing 28 different AIs belonging to 13 antimicrobial classes during the year Tables 2 , 3 , Supplementary Table 1. Of the 42 antimicrobial products used, 15 contained a single antimicrobial agent five each, belonging to aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, and tetracyclines , whereas 27 were combination products Table 3.
In terms of ATI metric, aminoglycosides Parenterally administered antimicrobials gave the highest total ATI, i. Table 2. AI analysis showed that in terms of ATI, oxytetracycline 7. Oxytetracycline 7. ATI values for the antimicrobials cefalonium 4. In terms of the AI quantities, oxytetracycline Table 4. Globally, several initiatives have called for the prudent use of antimicrobials in food animals to prevent AMR crisis 25 , The Indian subcontinent India and Pakistan is one of the largest dairy milk-producing regions in the world However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no study on quantification of AMU at the farm level from the entire region of the Indian subcontinent.
A shift toward intensive livestock farming due to an increase in animal-based protein demand in LMICs has been positively linked with the excessive use of antimicrobials in food animals.
In this study, we found an excessive amount of antimicrobial consumption in two of the corporate dairy farms, a growing industry in Pakistan.
Indeed, a herd with poor health will receive more treatments and have higher ATI values than a herd with good health, and a herd with a good health status i. ATI overestimation was checked by adjusting the weight of young stock to that of adult dairy cattle and by calculating per-day average DDDA for long-term preparations as reported previously 20 , However, antimicrobial overdosing or underdosing could not be accessed by ATI as no treatment records were maintained at farms and calculations were made using the labeled daily dose.
Similarly, the observed number of ATIs for each AI in combination products was higher than that observed for single-ingredient products. Total on-farm AMU We identified aminoglycoside and penicillin as the most commonly used antimicrobials in our study. In contrast, similar studies from European regions have shown penicillins and cephalosporins to be the most common antimicrobials used in the dairy sector 20 , 23 , 33 — However, our results are in correspondence with studies from African LMICs where tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, and penicillins are the most highly used antimicrobials The majority of antimicrobials were used for parenteral treatments followed by intramammary treatments, in line with the observations made in a Canadian study Low ATI for intrauterine treatments is probably an underestimation as some of the parenteral antimicrobials might be used off-label for intrauterine therapies.
In this study, we observed a high intensity of AMU in the two corporate commercial dairy farms, with This finding highlights the fact that monitoring of AMU in commercial farming is crucial to the national efforts aiming to promote prudent use of antimicrobials and related stewardship programs The lack of internationally accepted standard methodology and of an abbreviation system for reporting AMU at the farm level hinders the quantification and comparison of data among different locations 17 , 20 , 29 , 30 , 32 , 33 , One of the main limitations of our study is that it was based on a convenient sample of farms that are not representative of the country's commercial dairy sector.
Our results are therefore not generalizable to the rest of the Pakistani dairy sector. Another limitation is that, as the AMU calculations were based on inventory record data and the animal number was adjusted for a single dairy cow, AMU for each age group calves, heifers, and cows is not available, which may have led to the underestimation or overestimation of AMU in cows.
This is the first attempt to calculate AMU in dairy animals in Pakistan. The total AMU was considerably higher when compared to that in international studies, with a large percentage of animal use of critically important antimicrobials for human medicine.
Our baseline data will help policymakers to devise suitable antimicrobial stewardship programs for the emerging corporate commercial dairy sector in Pakistan. MM: conceived and supervised the study.
MM and MU: methodology. MU and FF: data analysis and results interpretation. All authors contributed to the article and approved the submitted version. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. The authors are grateful to the dairy producers for openly sharing their drug inventory data.
World Health Organization WHO guidelines on use of medically important antimicrobials in food-producing animals. Antimicrob Resist Infect Control. Reducing antimicrobial use in food animals. Surveillance of antimicrobial consumption in animal production sectors of low- and middle-income countries: optimizing use and addressing antimicrobial resistance.
PLoS Med. Global trends in antimicrobial use in food animals. O'Neill J. Google Scholar. An estimation of total antimicrobial usage in humans and animals in Vietnam. Antimicrobial resistance and the environment: assessment of advances, gaps and recommendations for agriculture, aquaculture and pharmaceutical manufacturing. Opportunities and barriers to implementing antibiotic stewardship in low and middle-income countries: Lessons from a mixed-methods study in a tertiary care hospital in Ethiopia.
Food Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Pakistan Bureau of Statistics Government of Pakistan. Agricultural Census - Pakistan Report. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
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Background: In Sweden, knowledge about the role of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in neonatal calf diarrhea and the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in E. This has therapeutic concern and such knowledge is also required for prudent use of antimicrobials. Methods: In a case control study Esherichia coli isolated from faecal samples from dairy calves were phenotyped by biochemical fingerprinting and analyzed for virulence genes by PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by determination of minimum inhibitory concentration MIC. Farm management data were collected and Fisher's exact test and univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis were performed. Results: Of 95 E.
Coronavirus Guidelines. Visit free Relief Central. Prime PubMed is provided free to individuals by: Unbound Medicine. Partial hepatectomy for treatment of multiple liver abscess in a calf: a case report. Ultrasonographic evaluation of umbilical structures in Holstein calves: A comparison between healthy calves and calves affected by umbilical disorders.
In Argentina information about veterinary antimicrobial usage at herd level is still Quantification of antimicrobial usage in dairy cows and preweaned calves in +4 authors H. Barkema; Medicine; Journal of dairy science; PDF.
First Case Report on Quantification of Antimicrobial Use in Corporate Dairy Farms in Pakistan
Neonatal calf diarrhea NCD and mortality cause significant losses to the dairy industry. The preweaning dairy calf mortality risk in Uruguay is high This study aimed to assess whether various pathogens were associated with NCD and death in Uruguayan dairy calves and whether these infections, diarrhea, or deaths were associated with the failure of transfer of passive immunity FTPI. Whether the sampled calves died before weaning was recorded.
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Pol and F. Pastorino and A.
Intensive livestock farming has become indispensable to meet the rapidly increasing demand for animal-based nutrition in low- and middle-income countries LMICs where antimicrobials are frequently used for treatment and prophylactic or metaphylactic purposes. The objective of this study was to quantify AMU in two large commercial dairy farms in Pakistan. A retrospective study was conducted at two large corporate commercial dairy farms located in Punjab province for the year Total on-farm AMU was found to be Measured in ATI, aminoglycosides A total of Considerably high AMU was found compared to other farm-level studies across the world.
Почти уже спустившись, Стратмор остановился, нащупывая последнюю ступеньку. Когда он ее нашел, каблук его ботинка громко ударился о кафельную плитку пола. Сьюзан почувствовала, как напряглось все его тело. Они вступили в опасную зону: Хейл может быть где угодно. Вдали, за корпусом ТРАНСТЕКСТА, находилась их цель - Третий узел. Сьюзан молила Бога, чтобы Хейл по-прежнему был там, на полу, катаясь от боли, как побитая собака. Других слов для него у нее не .
A total of % of all the antimicrobials used belonged to the critically /uploads//08/pgpromise.org (accessed June 18, ) usage in dairy cows and preweaned calves in Argentina.
Brief Research Report ARTICLE
Эти сообщения обычно бывают зашифрованы: на тот случай, если они попадут не в те руки, - а благодаря КОМИНТ это обычно так и происходит. Сьюзан сообщила Дэвиду, что ее работа заключается в изучении шифров, взламывании их ручными методами и передаче расшифрованных сообщений руководству. Но это было не совсем. Сьюзан переживала из-за того, что ей пришлось солгать любимому человеку, но у нее не было другого выхода. Все, что она сказала, было правдой еще несколько лет назад, но с тех пор положение в АН Б изменилось. Да и весь мир криптографии изменился.
Фонд электронных границ, воспользовавшись вспыхнувшим скандалом, поносил конгресс за проявленную наивность и назвал АНБ величайшей угрозой свободному миру со времен Гитлера. Новый стандарт шифрования приказал долго жить. Никому не показалось удивительным, что два дня спустя АНБ приняло Грега Хейла на работу. Стратмор решил, что лучше взять его к себе и заставить трудиться на благо АНБ, чем позволить противодействовать агентству извне. Стратмор мужественно перенес разразившийся скандал, горячо защищая свои действия перед конгрессом. Он утверждал, что стремление граждан к неприкосновенности частной переписки обернется для Америки большими неприятностями. Он доказывал, что кто-то должен присматривать за обществом, что взлом шифров агентством - вынужденная необходимость, залог мира.